Abstract

Emission of pulses of electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range is observed when ultrathin gold films on glass are illuminated with femtosecond near-IR laser pulses. A distinct maximum is observed in the emitted terahertz amplitude from films of average thickness just above the percolation threshold. Our measurements suggest that the emission is through a second-order nonlinear optical rectification process, enhanced by the excitation of localized surface plasmon hot spots on the percolated metal film.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2002

V.M.Shalaev, ed., Optical Properties of Nanostructured Random Media (Springer, 2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Breit, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, G. von Plessen, F. Feldmann, J. C. Rivoal, P. Gadenne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. M. Shalaev, Nonlinear Optics of Random Media(Springer, 2000).

1999

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1981

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977

P. Gadenne, Thin Solid Films 42, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1962

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Bass, M.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J. G.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Breit, M.

M. Breit, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, G. von Plessen, F. Feldmann, J. C. Rivoal, P. Gadenne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brouers, F.

Chakkittakandy, R.

Cooke, D. G.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408(2007).
[CrossRef]

Coutaz, J. -L.

Coutaz, J.-L.

Feldmann, F.

M. Breit, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, G. von Plessen, F. Feldmann, J. C. Rivoal, P. Gadenne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, G. L.

Franken, P. A.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. R.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408(2007).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. J.

Gadenne, P.

M. Breit, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, G. von Plessen, F. Feldmann, J. C. Rivoal, P. Gadenne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Gadenne, F. Brouers, V. M. Shalaev, and A. K. Sarychev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Gadenne, Thin Solid Films 42, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Garwe, F.

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Grésillon, S.

M. Breit, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, G. von Plessen, F. Feldmann, J. C. Rivoal, P. Gadenne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hajar, M.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hegmann, F. A.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408(2007).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, D. J.

Hu¨bner, U.

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, N. T.

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kadlec, F.

Kužel, P.

Liao, P. F.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

May, T.

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meserole, C. A.

Meyer, H.-G.

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. H.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Paa, W.

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

Podolskiy, V. A.

M. Breit, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, G. von Plessen, F. Feldmann, J. C. Rivoal, P. Gadenne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishnan, G.

Rivoal, J. C.

M. Breit, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, G. von Plessen, F. Feldmann, J. C. Rivoal, P. Gadenne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

M. Breit, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, G. von Plessen, F. Feldmann, J. C. Rivoal, P. Gadenne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Gadenne, F. Brouers, V. M. Shalaev, and A. K. Sarychev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, Phys. Rev. B 57, 13265(1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A.

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

M. Breit, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, G. von Plessen, F. Feldmann, J. C. Rivoal, P. Gadenne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, Nonlinear Optics of Random Media(Springer, 2000).

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, Phys. Rev. B 57, 13265(1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Gadenne, F. Brouers, V. M. Shalaev, and A. K. Sarychev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sherstan, C.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408(2007).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, V. A.

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stafast, H.

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Thompson, J. D.

von Plessen, G.

M. Breit, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, G. von Plessen, F. Feldmann, J. C. Rivoal, P. Gadenne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408(2007).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. F.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Weinreich, G.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, G. H.

G. H. Welsh and K. Wynne, Opt. Express 17, 2470 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wokaun, A.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, K.

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Welsh and K. Wynne, Opt. Express 17, 2470 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeisberger, M.

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zieger, G.

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

F. Garwe, A. Schmidt, G. Zieger, T. May, K. Wynne, U. Hu¨bner, M. Zeisberger, W. Paa, H. Stafast, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. B 102, 551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408(2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, Phys. Rev. B 57, 13265(1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Breit, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, G. von Plessen, F. Feldmann, J. C. Rivoal, P. Gadenne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

P. Gadenne, Thin Solid Films 42, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. M. Shalaev, Nonlinear Optics of Random Media(Springer, 2000).

V.M.Shalaev, ed., Optical Properties of Nanostructured Random Media (Springer, 2002).
[CrossRef]

K.Sakai, ed., Terahertz Optoelectronics (Springer, 2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the setup used in the experiment. (b) SEM image of 8 nm Au deposited on a glass substrate. The gray parts are randomly shaped clusters of Au, and the darker regions are the substrate surface. (c) A typical example of the emitted THz electric field from 8 nm Au on glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Emitted THz electric field amplitude from different thickness Au layers on glass. The red curve shows the emitted THz amplitude. Below 6 nm and above 14 nm average Au layer thickness, no significant THz emission could be detected in our setup. The blue curve shows the absorption of the 800 nm light by the sample. (b) The reflection (green curve), transmission (red curve), and absorption (blue curve) of the 800 nm light by different thickness Au films on glass.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emitted THz electric field amplitude is shown as a function of the incident laser power. The red line is a guide to the eye.

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