Abstract

In this Letter, the concept of transmit array antenna enabling light concentration in the near-IR region is explored. As for the elements of the transmit array, concentric loop scatterers are chosen due to their design flexibility and potential for providing high phase variation by changing the dimensions of the loops. Periodic behaviors of the concentric loop elements are obtained by means of the finite-difference time-domain method. Using these results, a transmit array configuration is designed, and a focused beam at a desired distance is achieved. To model the electromagnetic fields of the finite array, the field equivalence principle and proper dyadic Green’s functions are applied.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 22, 4794 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. A. Reza and N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 283, 3391 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Young C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 071112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Sun, and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 642 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Shi, C. Wang, C. Du, X. Luo, X. Dong, and H. Gao, Opt. Express 13, 6815 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Yin, C. Zhou, X. Luo, and C. Du, Opt. Express 16, 2578 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J. C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 4111 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, W. Shin, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, Opt. Lett. 35, 844 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. G. M. Ryan, M. R. Chaharmir, J. Shaker, J. R. Bray, Y. M. M. Antar, and A. Ittipiboon, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 58, 1486 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Mosallaei, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 49, 649(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Ahmadi and H. Mosallaei, Opt. Lett. 35, 3706 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Ahmadi, S. Saadat, and H. Mosallaei, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 59, 706 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and J.-Q. Xi, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3002 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Alù and N. Engheta, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 3027 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Ahmadi, S. Ghadarghadr, and H. Mosallaei, Opt. Express 18, 123 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. M. Pozar, S. D. Targonski, and H. D. Syrigos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 287 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. Encinar, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 1403(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (Wiley, 2001).
    [CrossRef]

2011

A. Ahmadi, S. Saadat, and H. Mosallaei, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 59, 706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 22, 4794 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Reza and N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 283, 3391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Young C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J. C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 4111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. M. Ryan, M. R. Chaharmir, J. Shaker, J. R. Bray, Y. M. M. Antar, and A. Ittipiboon, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 58, 1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, W. Shin, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, Opt. Lett. 35, 844 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ahmadi and H. Mosallaei, Opt. Lett. 35, 3706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Ahmadi, S. Ghadarghadr, and H. Mosallaei, Opt. Express 18, 123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and J.-Q. Xi, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 3027 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Mosallaei, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 49, 649(2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

Z. Sun, and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. A. Encinar, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 1403(2001).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (Wiley, 2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. M. Pozar, S. D. Targonski, and H. D. Syrigos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahmadi, A.

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 3027 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Antar, Y. M. M.

C. G. M. Ryan, M. R. Chaharmir, J. Shaker, J. R. Bray, Y. M. M. Antar, and A. Ittipiboon, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 58, 1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 22, 4794 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Young C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bray, J. R.

C. G. M. Ryan, M. R. Chaharmir, J. Shaker, J. R. Bray, Y. M. M. Antar, and A. Ittipiboon, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 58, 1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Young C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Young C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catrysse, P. B.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, W. Shin, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, Opt. Lett. 35, 844 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chaharmir, M. R.

C. G. M. Ryan, M. R. Chaharmir, J. Shaker, J. R. Bray, Y. M. M. Antar, and A. Ittipiboon, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 58, 1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

Du, C.

Encinar, J. A.

J. A. Encinar, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 1403(2001).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 3027 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, W. Shin, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, Opt. Lett. 35, 844 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 22, 4794 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J. C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 4111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shi, C. Wang, C. Du, X. Luo, X. Dong, and H. Gao, Opt. Express 13, 6815 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghadarghadr, S.

Goh, X. M.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrington, R. F.

R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (Wiley, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Hyun, J. K.

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J. C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 4111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ittipiboon, A.

C. G. M. Ryan, M. R. Chaharmir, J. Shaker, J. R. Bray, Y. M. M. Antar, and A. Ittipiboon, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 58, 1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Young C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Young C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. K.

Z. Sun, and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and J.-Q. Xi, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lauhon, L. J.

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J. C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 4111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. H.

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J. C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 4111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, L.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

McGuinness, L. P.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosallaei, H.

A. Ahmadi, S. Saadat, and H. Mosallaei, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 59, 706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ahmadi and H. Mosallaei, Opt. Lett. 35, 3706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ahmadi, S. Ghadarghadr, and H. Mosallaei, Opt. Express 18, 123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mosallaei, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 49, 649(2007).
[CrossRef]

Munday, J. N.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 22, 4794 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odom, T. W.

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J. C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 4111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pozar, D. M.

D. M. Pozar, S. D. Targonski, and H. D. Syrigos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reza, S. A.

S. A. Reza and N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 283, 3391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

S. A. Reza and N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 283, 3391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, Z.

Ryan, C. G. M.

C. G. M. Ryan, M. R. Chaharmir, J. Shaker, J. R. Bray, Y. M. M. Antar, and A. Ittipiboon, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 58, 1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saadat, S.

A. Ahmadi, S. Saadat, and H. Mosallaei, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 59, 706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and J.-Q. Xi, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Young C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaker, J.

C. G. M. Ryan, M. R. Chaharmir, J. Shaker, J. R. Bray, Y. M. M. Antar, and A. Ittipiboon, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 58, 1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, H.

Shin, W.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Syrigos, H. D.

D. M. Pozar, S. D. Targonski, and H. D. Syrigos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Targonski, S. D.

D. M. Pozar, S. D. Targonski, and H. D. Syrigos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verslegers, L.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, W. Shin, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, Opt. Lett. 35, 844 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Young C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and J.-Q. Xi, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. C.

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J. C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 4111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, S.

Yu, Z.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, W. Shin, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, Opt. Lett. 35, 844 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

Adv. Mater.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 22, 4794 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

C. G. M. Ryan, M. R. Chaharmir, J. Shaker, J. R. Bray, Y. M. M. Antar, and A. Ittipiboon, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 58, 1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ahmadi, S. Saadat, and H. Mosallaei, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 59, 706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 3027 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Pozar, S. D. Targonski, and H. D. Syrigos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Encinar, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 1403(2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat.

H. Mosallaei, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 49, 649(2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J. C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 4111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Young C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

S. A. Reza and N. A. Riza, Opt. Commun. 283, 3391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Status Solidi B

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and J.-Q. Xi, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (Wiley, 2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the unit cell (of a periodic structure). (a)  y z plane and (b)  x z plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission (a) amplitude and (b) phase versus frequency. The blue solid curve is for L o = 150 nm and L i = 25 nm . The red dashed line is for L o = 150 nm and L i = 50 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Study of changing the parameters of the unit cell to obtain required transmission phase. (a) Transmission amplitude and phase for the first design ( L o = 150 nm , 25 nm < L i < 55 nm ). (b) Transmission amplitude and phase for the second design ( 100 nm < L o < 125 nm , L i = 35 nm ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the 21 × 21 array elements for focusing the light. Note that the scatterers are placed on both sides of the substrate. (b) Phase delay obtained by the array of scatterers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric field distribution after the concentrator in (a)  x y plane, (b)  x z plane, and (c)  y z plane (at the focal plane).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ ( y , z ) = 2 π f 2 + y 2 + z 2 λ 2 π f λ .
E = S G ¯ e 1 · J + d r + S G ¯ e m 1 · M + d r .

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