Abstract

A fast, simple, and low-cost optical time-gating scheme for counting single photons is presented. Its construction consists of a silicon photodiode connected in series with a 50Ω resistor and that operates in the photoconductive mode. The temporal resolution at the FWHM of the photon counting system was measured to be 62ps. The profile of a single-photon pulse measured with the counting system agreed well with analytical results. The system was also used to successfully resolve a pair of targets with 4mm separation inside a highly scattering medium by the use of time-gated early-arriving photons.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Marengo, C. Pepin, T. Goulet, and D. Honde, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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D. R. Kirkby and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 939(1996).
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1992 (1)

1991 (3)

Aikawa, E.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. R. Duncan, A. Bergmann, M. A. Cousin, D. K. Apps, and M. J. Shipston, J. Microsc. 215, 1 (2004).
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Barry, N. P.

Bassi, A.

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[CrossRef]

Benndorf, K.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, A.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Duncan, A. Bergmann, M. A. Cousin, D. K. Apps, and M. J. Shipston, J. Microsc. 215, 1 (2004).
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Biskup, C.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brida, D.

Bruce, N. C.

Cerullo, G.

Chen, K.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, D. M.

Cousin, M. A.

R. R. Duncan, A. Bergmann, M. A. Cousin, D. K. Apps, and M. J. Shipston, J. Microsc. 215, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

D’Andrea, C.

Dainty, J. C.

Das, B. B.

Dasari, R. R.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Kleine, R. H.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

Delpy, D. T.

D. R. Kirkby and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 939(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donkor, E.

C. Villa, P. D. Kumavor, and E. Donkor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, R. R.

R. R. Duncan, A. Bergmann, M. A. Cousin, D. K. Apps, and M. J. Shipston, J. Microsc. 215, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P. M. W.

Goulet, T.

S. Marengo, C. Pepin, T. Goulet, and D. Honde, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

Hink, M. A.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Marengo, C. Pepin, T. Goulet, and D. Honde, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, S. C. W.

Kirkby, D. R.

D. R. Kirkby and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 939(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirsch, D. G.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konig, K.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, R. A.

Kumavor, P. D.

C. Villa, P. D. Kumavor, and E. Donkor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marengo, S.

S. Marengo, C. Pepin, T. Goulet, and D. Honde, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minami, S.

Niedre, M. J.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Turner, G. Zacharakis, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 30, 409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepin, C.

S. Marengo, C. Pepin, T. Goulet, and D. Honde, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripoll, J.

Schmidt, F. E. W.

Shipston, M. J.

R. R. Duncan, A. Bergmann, M. A. Cousin, D. K. Apps, and M. J. Shipston, J. Microsc. 215, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soubret, A.

Turner, G. M.

Uchida, T.

Valentini, G.

Villa, C.

C. Villa, P. D. Kumavor, and E. Donkor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. F.

Weissleder, R.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, K. S.

Yoo, K. M.

Zacharakis, G.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Marengo, C. Pepin, T. Goulet, and D. Honde, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Villa, P. D. Kumavor, and E. Donkor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

R. R. Duncan, A. Bergmann, M. A. Cousin, D. K. Apps, and M. J. Shipston, J. Microsc. 215, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

D. R. Kirkby and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 939(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Circuit diagram of the optical gating scheme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the time-gated single-photon counting system. BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; PMT, photomultiplier tube; Amp, amplifier stage; CFD, constant fraction discriminator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Impulse response of the time-gated single-photon counting system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TPSF of a 6 cm 1 reduced scattering coefficient intralipid solution compared with the analytical result. The solution is in a transparent container of 3.2 cm thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup for detecting and resolving two targets separated by 4 mm embedded in a highly scattering medium.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized photon counts obtained for the target-pair positions across the laser beam path. The target locations with respect to the counts are also indicated.

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