Abstract

A fast, simple, and low-cost optical time-gating scheme for counting single photons is presented. Its construction consists of a silicon photodiode connected in series with a 50Ω resistor and that operates in the photoconductive mode. The temporal resolution at the FWHM of the photon counting system was measured to be 62ps. The profile of a single-photon pulse measured with the counting system agreed well with analytical results. The system was also used to successfully resolve a pair of targets with 4mm separation inside a highly scattering medium by the use of time-gated early-arriving photons.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. R. Kirkby and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 939(1996).
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M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
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W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
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Benndorf, K.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
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Bergmann, A.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
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R. R. Duncan, A. Bergmann, M. A. Cousin, D. K. Apps, and M. J. Shipston, J. Microsc. 215, 1 (2004).
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Biskup, C.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brida, D.

Bruce, N. C.

Cerullo, G.

Chen, K.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, D. M.

Cousin, M. A.

R. R. Duncan, A. Bergmann, M. A. Cousin, D. K. Apps, and M. J. Shipston, J. Microsc. 215, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

D’Andrea, C.

Dainty, J. C.

Das, B. B.

Dasari, R. R.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Kleine, R. H.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

Delpy, D. T.

D. R. Kirkby and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 939(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donkor, E.

C. Villa, P. D. Kumavor, and E. Donkor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, R. R.

R. R. Duncan, A. Bergmann, M. A. Cousin, D. K. Apps, and M. J. Shipston, J. Microsc. 215, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P. M. W.

Goulet, T.

S. Marengo, C. Pepin, T. Goulet, and D. Honde, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

Hink, M. A.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
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S. Marengo, C. Pepin, T. Goulet, and D. Honde, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, S. C. W.

Kirkby, D. R.

D. R. Kirkby and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 939(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirsch, D. G.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konig, K.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, R. A.

Kumavor, P. D.

C. Villa, P. D. Kumavor, and E. Donkor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marengo, S.

S. Marengo, C. Pepin, T. Goulet, and D. Honde, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minami, S.

Niedre, M. J.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Turner, G. Zacharakis, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 30, 409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepin, C.

S. Marengo, C. Pepin, T. Goulet, and D. Honde, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripoll, J.

Schmidt, F. E. W.

Shipston, M. J.

R. R. Duncan, A. Bergmann, M. A. Cousin, D. K. Apps, and M. J. Shipston, J. Microsc. 215, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soubret, A.

Turner, G. M.

Uchida, T.

Valentini, G.

Villa, C.

C. Villa, P. D. Kumavor, and E. Donkor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. F.

Weissleder, R.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, K. S.

Yoo, K. M.

Zacharakis, G.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. Marengo, C. Pepin, T. Goulet, and D. Honde, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Villa, P. D. Kumavor, and E. Donkor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 144 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc.

R. R. Duncan, A. Bergmann, M. A. Cousin, D. K. Apps, and M. J. Shipston, J. Microsc. 215, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Tech.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. Konig, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

D. R. Kirkby and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 939(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

M. J. Niedre, R. H. de Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Circuit diagram of the optical gating scheme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the time-gated single-photon counting system. BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; PMT, photomultiplier tube; Amp, amplifier stage; CFD, constant fraction discriminator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Impulse response of the time-gated single-photon counting system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TPSF of a 6 cm 1 reduced scattering coefficient intralipid solution compared with the analytical result. The solution is in a transparent container of 3.2 cm thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup for detecting and resolving two targets separated by 4 mm embedded in a highly scattering medium.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized photon counts obtained for the target-pair positions across the laser beam path. The target locations with respect to the counts are also indicated.

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