Abstract

An ultrahigh sensitivity polarimetric strain sensor is proposed based upon a four-layer D-shaped optical fiber and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. In contrast to existing SPR-based sensors, which are based on changes in the refractive index of the overlayer, the sensor proposed in this study is based on the change in the refractive index of the fiber core in response to the application of an axial load. Specifically, the phase difference between the P and S waves after passing through the sensor under SPR conditions is measured using a common-path heterodyne interferometer and is used to determine the corresponding change in the refractive index of the core, from which the strain is then inversely derived. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the proposed sensor is around 2.19×104  deg/ε, i.e., degree/strain. By contrast, that of a conventional (non-SPR) polarimetric fiber sensor is just 5.2×102  deg/ε. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the sensor proposed in this study represents the first reported attempt to exploit the refractive index change of the core of an SPR-based fiber sensor for strain measurement purposes.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

2005

2001

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213(1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

G. C. Aldea and J. Mateo, Sens. Actuators B 7, 771 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. R. Samble, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 17(1988).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Kao, Optical Fiber, IEE Material & Devices Series (IEEE, 1988).

1987

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 895(1987).
[CrossRef]

Aldea, G. C.

G. C. Aldea and J. Mateo, Sens. Actuators B 7, 771 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Bertholds, A.

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 17(1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 895(1987).
[CrossRef]

Bird, D.

Bradbery, G. W.

J. R. Samble, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. S.

Chi, M. H.

M. H. Chiu, M. H. Chi, and C. H. Shin, Appl. Phys. A 89, 413(2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, M. H.

M. H. Chiu, M. H. Chi, and C. H. Shin, Appl. Phys. A 89, 413(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chiu, S. F. Wang, and R. S. Chang, Opt. Lett. 30, 233(2005).
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Chuang, C. H.

Dandliker, R.

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 17(1988).
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A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 895(1987).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

George, A.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J.

Joly, N. Y.

Jorgenson, R. C.

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[CrossRef]

Kao, C. K.

C. K. Kao, Optical Fiber, IEE Material & Devices Series (IEEE, 1988).

Knight, J. C.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lee, H. W.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, P. Uebel, H. Tyagi, N. Y. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 19, 8200(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. L.

Maier, S.

Mateo, J.

G. C. Aldea and J. Mateo, Sens. Actuators B 7, 771 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rindorf, L.

Russell, P. St. J.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, P. Uebel, H. Tyagi, N. Y. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 19, 8200(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Samble, J. R.

J. R. Samble, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scharrer, M.

Schmidt, M. A.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, P. Uebel, H. Tyagi, N. Y. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 19, 8200(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sempere, L. P.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shin, C. H.

M. H. Chiu, M. H. Chi, and C. H. Shin, Appl. Phys. A 89, 413(2007).
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, H.

Tyagi, H. K.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uebel, P.

Wang, S. F.

Wu, D. K. C.

Yang, F.

J. R. Samble, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213(1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

M. H. Chiu, M. H. Chi, and C. H. Shin, Appl. Phys. A 89, 413(2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys.

J. R. Samble, G. W. Bradbery, and F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 895(1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 17(1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators B

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213(1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Aldea and J. Mateo, Sens. Actuators B 7, 771 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. K. Kao, Optical Fiber, IEE Material & Devices Series (IEEE, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for D-shaped fiber SPR strain sensor. (b) Schematic illustration of four-layer D-shaped fiber SPR strain sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of phase difference with change in n overlayer in four-layer model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of phase difference with change in n core in four-layer model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of phase difference with strain in (a) four-layer D-shaped fiber SPR sensor (overlayer, glycerol solution) and (b) general polarimetric fiber sensor (overlayer, air). The squares are experimental data and the solid lines are linear curve fitting.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E out = [ A ( 45 ° ) relative ] [ SPR D -shaped-optical-fiber ] [ EO ( 0 ° ) ] × [ P ( 45 ° ) ] e j ( k r ω t ) = [ cos 2 45 ° sin 45 ° cos 45 ° sin 45 ° cos 45 ° sin 2 45 ° ] [ ρ e j θ 0 0 1 ] × [ cos ω EO t 2 + i sin ω EO t 2 0 0 cos ω EO t 2 i sin ω EO t 2 ] × [ 1 2 1 2 ] e j ( k r ω t ) ,
I out = E out E out * [ I DC + 1 2 | r s | | r p | cos ( ω EO t + θ ) ] .
n core = n core [ 1 n core 2 2 ( p 12 s 1 + p 11 s 2 + p 12 s 3 ) ] ,

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