Abstract

We demonstrate controlled high-order harmonic generation in gas using high-energy femtosecond pulses (50fs50mJ on target) by performing spatial shaping of the terrawatt fundamental laser beam. We have developed a two optical paths mirror that can withstand high power and shape the pump beam into a quasi-flat-top profile (super Gaussian) near focus. We observe clear signatures of the spatial shaping on the harmonic beam in terms of profile, divergence, level of signal, and spectrum. The harmonic generation in neon with a quasi-flat-top beam results in a broadband extreme UV beam with extremely low divergence (340μrad).

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2008

V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

W. Boutu, “Dynamique de la génération d’harmonique dans les atomes dans les molécules,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris XI Orsay, 2007).

2005

O. Boyko, Th. Planchon, C. Valentin, D. Douillet, D. Reitze, S. Kazamias, S. Sebban, and Ph. Balcou, Laser Phys. 15, 616 (2005).

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, Nature 432, 605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

E. Takahashi, V. Tosa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. A 68, 023808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 27, 1920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. Roos, E. Constant, E. Mével, Ph. Balcou, D. Descamps, M. B. Gaarde, A. Valette, R. Haroturian, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 60, 5010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Toma, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and H. G. Muller, J. Phys. B 32, 5843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, Ph.

E. S. Toma, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and H. G. Muller, J. Phys. B 32, 5843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Augé, F.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, T.

Balcou, Ph.

O. Boyko, Th. Planchon, C. Valentin, D. Douillet, D. Reitze, S. Kazamias, S. Sebban, and Ph. Balcou, Laser Phys. 15, 616 (2005).

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Roos, E. Constant, E. Mével, Ph. Balcou, D. Descamps, M. B. Gaarde, A. Valette, R. Haroturian, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 60, 5010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bohman, S.

Boutu, W.

W. Boutu, “Dynamique de la génération d’harmonique dans les atomes dans les molécules,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris XI Orsay, 2007).

Boyko, O.

O. Boyko, Th. Planchon, C. Valentin, D. Douillet, D. Reitze, S. Kazamias, S. Sebban, and Ph. Balcou, Laser Phys. 15, 616 (2005).

Breger, P.

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carré, B.

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Constant, E.

C. Fourcade Dutin, A. Dubrouil, S. Petit, E. Mével, E. Constant, and D. Descamps, Opt. Lett. 35, 253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, Eur. J. Phys. Spec. Top. 175, 15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Roos, E. Constant, E. Mével, Ph. Balcou, D. Descamps, M. B. Gaarde, A. Valette, R. Haroturian, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 60, 5010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

de Bohan, A.

E. S. Toma, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and H. G. Muller, J. Phys. B 32, 5843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Descamps, D.

C. Fourcade Dutin, A. Dubrouil, S. Petit, E. Mével, E. Constant, and D. Descamps, Opt. Lett. 35, 253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Roos, E. Constant, E. Mével, Ph. Balcou, D. Descamps, M. B. Gaarde, A. Valette, R. Haroturian, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 60, 5010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Douillet, D.

O. Boyko, Th. Planchon, C. Valentin, D. Douillet, D. Reitze, S. Kazamias, S. Sebban, and Ph. Balcou, Laser Phys. 15, 616 (2005).

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dubrouil, A.

Dutin, C. Fourcade

Frumker, E.

Gaarde, M. B.

L. Roos, E. Constant, E. Mével, Ph. Balcou, D. Descamps, M. B. Gaarde, A. Valette, R. Haroturian, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 60, 5010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gallmann, L.

Grillon, G.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haroturian, R.

L. Roos, E. Constant, E. Mével, Ph. Balcou, D. Descamps, M. B. Gaarde, A. Valette, R. Haroturian, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 60, 5010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, H.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hergott, J. F.

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holler, M.

Hubert, C.

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, D.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jean, E.

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

Kazamias, S.

O. Boyko, Th. Planchon, C. Valentin, D. Douillet, D. Reitze, S. Kazamias, S. Sebban, and Ph. Balcou, Laser Phys. 15, 616 (2005).

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Kosuge, A.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, Nature 432, 605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovacev, M.

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

L. Roos, E. Constant, E. Mével, Ph. Balcou, D. Descamps, M. B. Gaarde, A. Valette, R. Haroturian, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 60, 5010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Merdji, H.

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mével, E.

C. Fourcade Dutin, A. Dubrouil, S. Petit, E. Mével, E. Constant, and D. Descamps, Opt. Lett. 35, 253 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, Eur. J. Phys. Spec. Top. 175, 15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Roos, E. Constant, E. Mével, Ph. Balcou, D. Descamps, M. B. Gaarde, A. Valette, R. Haroturian, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 60, 5010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

S. Bohman, A. Suda, T. Kanai, S. Yamaguchi, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 1887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, V. Tosa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. A 68, 023808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 27, 1920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

E. S. Toma, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and H. G. Muller, J. Phys. B 32, 5843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nabekawa, Y.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, V. Tosa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. A 68, 023808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 27, 1920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niikura, H.

Paulus, G. G.

Petit, S.

Planchon, T.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Planchon, Th.

O. Boyko, Th. Planchon, C. Valentin, D. Douillet, D. Reitze, S. Kazamias, S. Sebban, and Ph. Balcou, Laser Phys. 15, 616 (2005).

Reitze, D.

O. Boyko, Th. Planchon, C. Valentin, D. Douillet, D. Reitze, S. Kazamias, S. Sebban, and Ph. Balcou, Laser Phys. 15, 616 (2005).

Roos, L.

L. Roos, E. Constant, E. Mével, Ph. Balcou, D. Descamps, M. B. Gaarde, A. Valette, R. Haroturian, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 60, 5010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Auguste, A. Zaïr, M. Weger, P. Salières, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, Opt. Express 18, 2987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schapper, F.

Sebban, S.

O. Boyko, Th. Planchon, C. Valentin, D. Douillet, D. Reitze, S. Kazamias, S. Sebban, and Ph. Balcou, Laser Phys. 15, 616 (2005).

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sekikawa, T.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, Nature 432, 605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strelkov, V. V.

V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, Eur. J. Phys. Spec. Top. 175, 15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suda, A.

Takahashi, E.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, V. Tosa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. A 68, 023808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 27, 1920 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toma, E. S.

E. S. Toma, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and H. G. Muller, J. Phys. B 32, 5843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tosa, V.

E. Takahashi, V. Tosa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. A 68, 023808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Valentin, C.

O. Boyko, Th. Planchon, C. Valentin, D. Douillet, D. Reitze, S. Kazamias, S. Sebban, and Ph. Balcou, Laser Phys. 15, 616 (2005).

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Valette, A.

L. Roos, E. Constant, E. Mével, Ph. Balcou, D. Descamps, M. B. Gaarde, A. Valette, R. Haroturian, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 60, 5010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

Watanabe, S.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, Nature 432, 605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weger, M.

Weihe, F.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

Zaïr, A.

Eur. J. Phys. Spec. Top.

V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, Eur. J. Phys. Spec. Top. 175, 15 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

E. S. Toma, Ph. Antoine, A. de Bohan, and H. G. Muller, J. Phys. B 32, 5843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

O. Boyko, Th. Planchon, C. Valentin, D. Douillet, D. Reitze, S. Kazamias, S. Sebban, and Ph. Balcou, Laser Phys. 15, 616 (2005).

Nature

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, Nature 432, 605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

J. F. Hergott, M. Kovacev, H. Merdji, C. Hubert, Y. Mairesse, E. Jean, P. Breger, P. Agostini, B. Carré, and P. Salières, Phys. Rev. A 66, 021801(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Roos, E. Constant, E. Mével, Ph. Balcou, D. Descamps, M. B. Gaarde, A. Valette, R. Haroturian, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 60, 5010 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Takahashi, V. Tosa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. A 68, 023808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

W. Boutu, “Dynamique de la génération d’harmonique dans les atomes dans les molécules,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris XI Orsay, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for HHG with spatial shaping. The insets show the beam radial profiles of the fundamental beam near focus (a) for an iris diameter of 18 mm , FWHM = 98 μm and (b) for an iris diameter of 30 mm (flat-top beam shaping), FWHM = 128 μm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatially resolved harmonic spectra obtained with neon gas for several iris diameters. The observation window extends from H39 ( 11.67 nm ) to H69 ( 20.64 nm ). (a) and (b) are obtained respectively with a 9 mm and a 11 mm iris (standard conditions). (c) is obtained with the flat-top shaping ( ϕ iris = 25 mm ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spatial and spectral evolution of H45 with the iris diameter. The spatially resolved spectra of H45 are extracted for several values of ϕ iris and plotted next to each other. (b) XUV beam divergence (in FWHM) evolution with ϕ iris for several groups of harmonics: H39–41 (red), H43–45 (green), H47–49 (blue); H51–55 (yellow), H57–61 (cyan), and H63–69 (black).

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