Abstract

We investigate the surface roughness of polycrystalline silicon core optical fibers fabricated using a high-pressure chemical deposition technique. By measuring the optical transmission of two fibers with different core sizes, we will show that scattering from the core–cladding interface has a negligible effect on the losses. A Zemetrics ZeScope three-dimensional optical profiler has been used to directly measure the surface of the core material, confirming a roughness of only 0.1nm. The ability to fabricate low-loss polysilicon optical fibers with ultrasmooth cores scalable to submicrometer dimensions should establish their use in a range of nonlinear optical applications.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 17, 4752 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Fang, J. F. Song, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Opt. Express 16, 6425 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Zhu, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Opt. Express 17, 20891 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, Opt. Express 16, 18675 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 7596 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. C. Peacock, Opt. Lett. 35, 3697 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Peacock, Opt. Lett. 35, 3697 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2005

2001

2000

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J. V.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballato, J.

Baril, N. F.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T.

Black, M. R.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Borhan, A.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

Cerrina, F.

Chen, L.

Couny, F.

Daw, M.

Duan, X. M.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ellison, M.

Fang, Q.

Farr, L.

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foy, P.

Gopalan, V.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, T.

Healy, N.

Hibino, Y.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keshavarzi, B.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J.

Kokuoz, B.

Krishnamurthi, M.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D. L.

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lagonigro, L.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Lo, G. Q.

Luan, H. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B.

Mason, M.

McMillen, C.

Oda, K.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A. C.

A. C. Peacock, Opt. Lett. 35, 3697 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrovich, M. N.

Poitras, C. B.

Powers, D. R.

Preston, K.

Rao, A. M.

Reppert, J.

Rice, R. R.

Roberts, P.

Robinson, J. T.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sabert, H.

Sazio, P. J.

Sazio, P. J. A.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, S. R.

Shin, J.

Shori, R.

Song, J. F.

Sparks, J. R.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stafsudd, O.

Stolen, R.

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S. H.

Temnykh, I.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

Williams, D.

Yanagisawa, M.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Zhu, S.

Adv. Mater.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Mater.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical microscope image of the 5.6 μm polysilicon core fiber as prepared for optical coupling, scale bar 50 μm . (b) HIM image of the 1.3 μm core, scale bar 400 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmission loss of the 1.3 μm core fiber (black dots), and the 5.6 μm fiber (red diamonds).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Imaged surface roughness of the core of a polysilicon optical fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scattering loss as functions of the surface roughness and waveguide diameter. Inset is a close-up of the scattering loss corresponding to the surface roughness of our fibers σ = 0.1 nm .

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α s = 4.3 σ 2 2 k ( d / 2 ) 4 n g ( V ) · f ( x , γ ) .

Metrics