Abstract

We investigate the surface roughness of polycrystalline silicon core optical fibers fabricated using a high-pressure chemical deposition technique. By measuring the optical transmission of two fibers with different core sizes, we will show that scattering from the core–cladding interface has a negligible effect on the losses. A Zemetrics ZeScope three-dimensional optical profiler has been used to directly measure the surface of the core material, confirming a roughness of only 0.1nm. The ability to fabricate low-loss polysilicon optical fibers with ultrasmooth cores scalable to submicrometer dimensions should establish their use in a range of nonlinear optical applications.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 17, 4752 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Fang, J. F. Song, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Opt. Express 16, 6425 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Zhu, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Opt. Express 17, 20891 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, Opt. Express 16, 18675 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 7596 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. C. Peacock, Opt. Lett. 35, 3697 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Peacock, Opt. Lett. 35, 3697 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J. V.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballato, J.

Baril, N. F.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T.

Black, M. R.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Borhan, A.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

Cerrina, F.

Chen, L.

Couny, F.

Daw, M.

Duan, X. M.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ellison, M.

Fang, Q.

Farr, L.

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foy, P.

Gopalan, V.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, T.

Healy, N.

Hibino, Y.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keshavarzi, B.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J.

Kokuoz, B.

Krishnamurthi, M.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D. L.

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lagonigro, L.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Lo, G. Q.

Luan, H. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B.

Mason, M.

McMillen, C.

Oda, K.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A. C.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Peacock, Opt. Lett. 35, 3697 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrovich, M. N.

Poitras, C. B.

Powers, D. R.

Preston, K.

Rao, A. M.

Reppert, J.

Rice, R. R.

Roberts, P.

Robinson, J. T.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sabert, H.

Sazio, P. J.

Sazio, P. J. A.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, S. R.

Shin, J.

Shori, R.

Song, J. F.

Sparks, J. R.

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 18, 7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stafsudd, O.

Stolen, R.

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S. H.

Temnykh, I.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

Williams, D.

Yanagisawa, M.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Zhu, S.

Adv. Mater. (1)

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, Adv. Mater. 22, 4605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Mater. (1)

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. M. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Electron Mater. 29, 1380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical microscope image of the 5.6 μm polysilicon core fiber as prepared for optical coupling, scale bar 50 μm . (b) HIM image of the 1.3 μm core, scale bar 400 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmission loss of the 1.3 μm core fiber (black dots), and the 5.6 μm fiber (red diamonds).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Imaged surface roughness of the core of a polysilicon optical fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scattering loss as functions of the surface roughness and waveguide diameter. Inset is a close-up of the scattering loss corresponding to the surface roughness of our fibers σ = 0.1 nm .

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α s = 4.3 σ 2 2 k ( d / 2 ) 4 n g ( V ) · f ( x , γ ) .

Metrics