Abstract

An electrically tunable high-efficiency phase diffraction grating using the transparent lead magnesium niobate-lead titanite (PMNT) electro-optic ceramic is proposed. A photomask technique is used for fabricating the grating with the Ti/Pt/Au interdigital electrodes. With the variation of the equivalent phase face induced by the quadratic elec tro-optic effect of the PMNT ceramic, the diffraction patterns of the light beam will be changed in which the diffraction efficiency may be controlled by an applied DC voltage. When the applied voltages are 41, 80, and 139V, the zero-order, first-order, or second-order diffraction lights will disappear in turn with about 100% diffraction efficiency. The proposed grating can be used as an electrically controlled switch in the laser beam modulation and scanning, especially for the application of the high-power laser systems.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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P. Lin, X. Liang, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1131 (2004).
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R. Miao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, and C. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3033 (2002).
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G. E. Lohman and A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Eng. 27, 893 (1988).

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[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Cai, H.

Chen, Q.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, Proc. SPIE 5644, 380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen, D. Robinson, H. Lu, M. R. Wang, T. Jannson, and R. Baumbick, Opt. Eng. 31, 1098 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.

W. Hung, I. Jiang, M. Tsai, P. Yeh, and W. Cheng, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuG4.

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[CrossRef]

Dong, Z.

Duncan, B. D.

Eason, R. W.

Fang, Z.

Ferraro, P.

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[CrossRef]

Gan, J.

Gioffré, M.

Hung, W.

W. Hung, I. Jiang, M. Tsai, P. Yeh, and W. Cheng, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuG4.

Iodice, M.

Jannson, T.

R. T. Chen, D. Robinson, H. Lu, M. R. Wang, T. Jannson, and R. Baumbick, Opt. Eng. 31, 1098 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, Proc. SPIE 5644, 380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, I.

W. Hung, I. Jiang, M. Tsai, P. Yeh, and W. Cheng, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuG4.

Kamzina, L. S.

L. S. Kamzina, R. Wei, G. Li, J. Zeng, and A. Ding, Phys. Solid State 52, 2142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

D. Subacius, S. V. Shiyanovskii, P. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

L. S. Kamzina, R. Wei, G. Li, J. Zeng, and A. Ding, Phys. Solid State 52, 2142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. K.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, Proc. SPIE 5644, 380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

P. Lin, X. Liang, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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P. Lin, X. Liang, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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G. E. Lohman and A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Eng. 27, 893 (1988).

Lohmann, A. W.

G. E. Lohman and A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Eng. 27, 893 (1988).

Lu, H.

R. T. Chen, D. Robinson, H. Lu, M. R. Wang, T. Jannson, and R. Baumbick, Opt. Eng. 31, 1098 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mailis, S.

Miao, R.

R. Miao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, and C. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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K. A. Crandall, M. R. Fisch, R. G. Petschek, and C. Rosenblatt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Qu, R.

Ren, H.

P. Lin, X. Liang, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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R. T. Chen, D. Robinson, H. Lu, M. R. Wang, T. Jannson, and R. Baumbick, Opt. Eng. 31, 1098 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, C.

K. A. Crandall, M. R. Fisch, R. G. Petschek, and C. Rosenblatt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C.

R. Miao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, and C. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

D. Subacius, S. V. Shiyanovskii, P. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q. W.

Subacius, D.

D. Subacius, S. V. Shiyanovskii, P. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H.

D. Yu and H. Tan, in Engineering Optics, 2nd ed. (China Machine, 2006), Chap. 13, p. 356.

Titus, C. M.

C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.

W. Hung, I. Jiang, M. Tsai, P. Yeh, and W. Cheng, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuG4.

Wang, M. R.

R. T. Chen, D. Robinson, H. Lu, M. R. Wang, T. Jannson, and R. Baumbick, Opt. Eng. 31, 1098 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, Proc. SPIE 5644, 380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, R.

L. S. Kamzina, R. Wei, G. Li, J. Zeng, and A. Ding, Phys. Solid State 52, 2142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

P. Lin, X. Liang, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

R. Miao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, and C. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Q.

Yeh, P.

W. Hung, I. Jiang, M. Tsai, P. Yeh, and W. Cheng, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuG4.

Yu, D.

D. Yu and H. Tan, in Engineering Optics, 2nd ed. (China Machine, 2006), Chap. 13, p. 356.

Zeng, J.

L. S. Kamzina, R. Wei, G. Li, J. Zeng, and A. Ding, Phys. Solid State 52, 2142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, Proc. SPIE 5644, 380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

R. Miao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, and C. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y. K.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, Proc. SPIE 5644, 380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. Miao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, and C. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Subacius, S. V. Shiyanovskii, P. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Crandall, M. R. Fisch, R. G. Petschek, and C. Rosenblatt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Lin, X. Liang, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

R. T. Chen, D. Robinson, H. Lu, M. R. Wang, T. Jannson, and R. Baumbick, Opt. Eng. 31, 1098 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Lohman and A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Eng. 27, 893 (1988).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Solid State (1)

L. S. Kamzina, R. Wei, G. Li, J. Zeng, and A. Ding, Phys. Solid State 52, 2142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, Proc. SPIE 5644, 380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Yu and H. Tan, in Engineering Optics, 2nd ed. (China Machine, 2006), Chap. 13, p. 356.

W. Hung, I. Jiang, M. Tsai, P. Yeh, and W. Cheng, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuG4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Model of the ETDG and (b) the CCD micrograph of the grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity distribution of the diffraction beam for d = 2 a .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity variation of the different diffraction order with the amplitude h of the equivalent phase face.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for the ETDG measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction patterns for different applied voltage.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ I D = I 0 ( sin α α ) 2 ( sin N ζ / 2 sin ζ / 2 ) 2 α = π a n 0 λ sin θ ζ = 2 π d n 0 λ sin θ ,
Θ = 4 h π [ n 0 2 sin 2 θ ] / n 0 λ .
I D = n J n 2 ( Θ ) = n J n 2 ( 4 π h n 0 2 sin 2 θ / n 0 λ ) ,

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