Abstract

We report a hybrid chalcogenide–silica photonic crystal fiber made by pressure-assisted melt-filling of molten glass. Photonic bandgap guidance is obtained at a silica core placed centrally in a hexagonal array of continuous centimeters-long chalcogenide strands with diameters of 1.45μm. In the passbands of the cladding, when the transmission through the silica core is very weak, the chalcogenide strands light up with distinct modal patterns corresponding to Mie resonances. In the spectral regions between these passbands, strong bandgap guidance is observed, where the silica core transmission loss is 60dB/cm lower. The pressure-assisted fabrication approach opens up new ways of integrating sophisticated glass-based devices into optical fiber circuitry with potential applications in supercontinuum generation, magneto-optics, wavelength selective devices, and rare-earth-doped amplifiers with high gain per unit length.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, and D. M. Bird, Opt. Express 14, 5688 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

N. Da, A. A. Enany, N. Granzow, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and L. Wondraczek, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1558(2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. K. Tyagi, H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, P. Uebel, N. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 35, 2573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, N. Da, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 34, 1946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Tverjanovich and E. V. Tereshchenko, Glass Phys. Chem. 35, 475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tverjanovich and E. V. Tereshchenko, Glass Phys. Chem. 35, 360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Skorobogatiy and J. Yang, Fundamentals of Photonic Crystal Guiding (Cambridge University, 2009).

2008 (4)

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Yeom, E. C. Maegi, M. R. E. Lamont, M. A. F. Roelens, L. B. Fu, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 33, 660 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

J. Troles, F. Smektala, L. Brillant, P. Houizot, F. Desevedavy, G. Boudebs, T. Chartierd, and N. Traynor, in Proceedings of 2006 International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol.  2 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 112–115.
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, and D. M. Bird, Opt. Express 14, 9483 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, and D. M. Bird, Opt. Express 14, 5688 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, and D. Hewak, Opt. Express 11, 2225 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wondraczek, G. H. Frischat, G. Heide, B. Weidenfeller, and G. Ziegmann, Glass Sci. Technol. 76, 103 (2003).

1984 (1)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 1984).

1921 (1)

E. W. Washburn, Phys. Rev. 17, 273 (1921).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

Bayindir, M.

Benoit, G.

Bird, D. M.

Birks, T. A.

Boudebs, G.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, L. Brillant, P. Houizot, F. Desevedavy, G. Boudebs, T. Chartierd, and N. Traynor, in Proceedings of 2006 International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol.  2 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 112–115.
[CrossRef]

Brilland, L.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brillant, L.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, L. Brillant, P. Houizot, F. Desevedavy, G. Boudebs, T. Chartierd, and N. Traynor, in Proceedings of 2006 International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol.  2 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 112–115.
[CrossRef]

Chartierd, T.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, L. Brillant, P. Houizot, F. Desevedavy, G. Boudebs, T. Chartierd, and N. Traynor, in Proceedings of 2006 International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol.  2 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 112–115.
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Da, N.

N. Da, A. A. Enany, N. Granzow, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and L. Wondraczek, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1558(2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, N. Da, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 34, 1946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desevedavy, F.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, F. Smektala, L. Brillant, P. Houizot, F. Desevedavy, G. Boudebs, T. Chartierd, and N. Traynor, in Proceedings of 2006 International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol.  2 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 112–115.
[CrossRef]

Duverger-Arfuso, C.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Enany, A. A.

N. Da, A. A. Enany, N. Granzow, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and L. Wondraczek, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1558(2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Finazzi, V.

Fink, Y.

Frischat, G. H.

L. Wondraczek, G. H. Frischat, G. Heide, B. Weidenfeller, and G. Ziegmann, Glass Sci. Technol. 76, 103 (2003).

Fu, L. B.

George, A. K.

Granzow, N.

N. Da, A. A. Enany, N. Granzow, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and L. Wondraczek, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1558(2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, N. Da, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 34, 1946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, S. D.

Hedley, T. D.

Heide, G.

L. Wondraczek, G. H. Frischat, G. Heide, B. Weidenfeller, and G. Ziegmann, Glass Sci. Technol. 76, 103 (2003).

Hewak, D.

Houizot, P.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, F. Smektala, L. Brillant, P. Houizot, F. Desevedavy, G. Boudebs, T. Chartierd, and N. Traynor, in Proceedings of 2006 International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol.  2 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 112–115.
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Joly, N.

Knight, J. C.

Kuriki, K.

Kuriki, Y.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lee, H. W.

H. K. Tyagi, H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, P. Uebel, N. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 35, 2573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Luan, F.

Maegi, E. C.

Moizan, V.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Nazabal, V.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Y.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, G. J.

Peng, M.

Petropoulos, P.

Poulton, C. G.

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prill Sempere, L. N.

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roelens, M. A. F.

Russell, P. St. J.

N. Da, A. A. Enany, N. Granzow, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and L. Wondraczek, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1558(2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tyagi, H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, P. Uebel, N. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 35, 2573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, N. Da, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 34, 1946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. St. J. Russell, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 309 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 29, 2369 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scharrer, M.

Schmidt, M. A.

N. Da, A. A. Enany, N. Granzow, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and L. Wondraczek, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1558(2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tyagi, H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, P. Uebel, N. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 35, 2573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, N. Da, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 34, 1946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sempere, L. P.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shapira, O.

Skorobogatiy, M.

M. Skorobogatiy and J. Yang, Fundamentals of Photonic Crystal Guiding (Cambridge University, 2009).

Smektala, F.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, F. Smektala, L. Brillant, P. Houizot, F. Desevedavy, G. Boudebs, T. Chartierd, and N. Traynor, in Proceedings of 2006 International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol.  2 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 112–115.
[CrossRef]

Tereshchenko, E. V.

A. S. Tverjanovich and E. V. Tereshchenko, Glass Phys. Chem. 35, 475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tverjanovich and E. V. Tereshchenko, Glass Phys. Chem. 35, 360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Traynor, N.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, L. Brillant, P. Houizot, F. Desevedavy, G. Boudebs, T. Chartierd, and N. Traynor, in Proceedings of 2006 International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol.  2 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 112–115.
[CrossRef]

Troles, J.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, F. Smektala, L. Brillant, P. Houizot, F. Desevedavy, G. Boudebs, T. Chartierd, and N. Traynor, in Proceedings of 2006 International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol.  2 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 112–115.
[CrossRef]

Tverjanovich, A. S.

A. S. Tverjanovich and E. V. Tereshchenko, Glass Phys. Chem. 35, 475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tverjanovich and E. V. Tereshchenko, Glass Phys. Chem. 35, 360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, H. K.

H. K. Tyagi, H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, P. Uebel, N. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 35, 2573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uebel, P.

Viens, J. F.

Wang, A.

Washburn, E. W.

E. W. Washburn, Phys. Rev. 17, 273 (1921).
[CrossRef]

Weidenfeller, B.

L. Wondraczek, G. H. Frischat, G. Heide, B. Weidenfeller, and G. Ziegmann, Glass Sci. Technol. 76, 103 (2003).

Wondraczek, L.

N. Da, A. A. Enany, N. Granzow, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and L. Wondraczek, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1558(2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, N. Da, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 34, 1946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wondraczek, G. H. Frischat, G. Heide, B. Weidenfeller, and G. Ziegmann, Glass Sci. Technol. 76, 103 (2003).

Yang, J.

M. Skorobogatiy and J. Yang, Fundamentals of Photonic Crystal Guiding (Cambridge University, 2009).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 1984).

Yeom, D. I.

Ziegmann, G.

L. Wondraczek, G. H. Frischat, G. Heide, B. Weidenfeller, and G. Ziegmann, Glass Sci. Technol. 76, 103 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glass Phys. Chem. (2)

A. S. Tverjanovich and E. V. Tereshchenko, Glass Phys. Chem. 35, 475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tverjanovich and E. V. Tereshchenko, Glass Phys. Chem. 35, 360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glass Sci. Technol. (1)

L. Wondraczek, G. H. Frischat, G. Heide, B. Weidenfeller, and G. Ziegmann, Glass Sci. Technol. 76, 103 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Da, A. A. Enany, N. Granzow, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and L. Wondraczek, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1558(2011).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. W. Washburn, Phys. Rev. 17, 273 (1921).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. Prill Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Skorobogatiy and J. Yang, Fundamentals of Photonic Crystal Guiding (Cambridge University, 2009).

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 1984).

J. Troles, F. Smektala, L. Brillant, P. Houizot, F. Desevedavy, G. Boudebs, T. Chartierd, and N. Traynor, in Proceedings of 2006 International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol.  2 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 112–115.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of chalcogenide–silica all-solid bandgap fiber. Red: chalcogenide strands. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of endface of a chalcogenide–silica bandgap fiber (core diameter 7.6 μm , pitch 3.8 μm , hole diameter 1.45 μm ) polished by focused-ion-beam milling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the pressure-assisted melt-filling technique. The green arrows indicate the direction of the Ar pressure and the blue arrow the chalcogenide flow. (b) Calculated filling length as a function of time for different capillary diameters, calculated assuming a viscosity of 5 Pa s (filling temperature 665 ° C and pressure 50 bar s ). A length of 2 cm can be filled in 40 min . The inset shows the temperature dependence of the chalcogenide viscosity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Setup for measuring the transmission through the chalcogenide-filled PCF. OBJ, objective; MM, multimode. (b) Upper diagram: measured transmission spectrum of the core mode of the filled PCF (red curve) and an identical unfilled sample (black). The filled section started 1 mm from the input endface of the PCF and was 5 mm long. Lower diagram: attenuation spectrum of the core mode calculated using a multipole approach. The yellow shaded strips indicate regions of increased attenuation (peaks), coinciding with dips in the transmission spectrum. (c) Output mode patterns taken with a high-resolution confocal microscope at selected wavelengths (A, 580 nm ; B, 615 nm ; C, 630 nm ; D, 700 nm ). The final two images are close-ups of mode patterns in individual strands at 630 nm . (d) Material absorption of bulk Ga 4 Ge 21 Sb 10 S 65 .

Equations (1)

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d F = p R 2 t / 4 η

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