Abstract

An advanced type of diffractive optical element is presented that combines the concept of the photon sieve with an off-axis, off-normal incidence reflection geometry. Compared to transmission optical elements, the signal-to-background ratio is significantly increased by separating the first from other diffraction orders without drastically reducing the size of the smallest diffractive element. The reflection photon sieve produces sharp foci at maximum contrast and offers the advantages of effective heat dissipation and a large working space above the focal plane. Experimental results for a device working at a photon energy of 100eV are presented and compared to theory.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, and O. Christ, Zone Plates for X-Ray Microscopy (Academic, 1984).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Fuhse, C. Ollinger, and T. Salditt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 254801 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photon. 4, 840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, Opt. Express 17, 17669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C. Fuhse, C. Ollinger, and T. Salditt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 254801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, and A. Svintsov, Opt. Commun. 245, 249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 054802(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. H. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. Bergemann, H. Keymeulen, and J. E. van der Veen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 204801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Bernd, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Hambach, G. Schneider, D. Weiss, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 857 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hambach, M. Peuker, and G. Schneider, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 877 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University, 1999).

M. Kiskinova, M. Marsi, E. di Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, Surf. Rev. Lett. 6, 265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1984

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, and O. Christ, Zone Plates for X-Ray Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

Adelung, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Bernd, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altenbernd, D.

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, Opt. Express 17, 17669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. H. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photon. 4, 840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University, 1999).

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. H. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergemann, C.

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Bergemann, H. Keymeulen, and J. E. van der Veen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 204801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berglund, M.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bernd, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Bernd, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, Opt. Express 17, 17669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. H. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christ, O.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, and O. Christ, Zone Plates for X-Ray Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

Conley, R.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David, C.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

di Fabrizio, E.

M. Kiskinova, M. Marsi, E. di Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, Surf. Rev. Lett. 6, 265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erko, A.

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, and A. Svintsov, Opt. Commun. 245, 249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fink, R. H.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firsov, A.

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, and A. Svintsov, Opt. Commun. 245, 249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

Förster, E.

Fortagne, O.

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fuhse, C.

C. Fuhse, C. Ollinger, and T. Salditt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 254801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, M.

M. Kiskinova, M. Marsi, E. di Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, Surf. Rev. Lett. 6, 265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guttman, P.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, and O. Christ, Zone Plates for X-Ray Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

Guttmann, P.

B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Hambach, G. Schneider, D. Weiss, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 857 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hambach, D.

B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Hambach, G. Schneider, D. Weiss, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 857 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hambach, M. Peuker, and G. Schneider, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 877 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harm, S.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Bernd, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harteneck, B. H.

W. Chao, B. H. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hässner, R.

Hertz, H. M.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jefimovs, K.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, R. L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Bernd, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H. C.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keymeulen, H.

C. Bergemann, H. Keymeulen, and J. E. van der Veen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 204801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Kipp, L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Bernd, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiskinova, M.

M. Kiskinova, M. Marsi, E. di Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, Surf. Rev. Lett. 6, 265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lengeler, B.

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 054802(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. H. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maassdorf, A.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macrander, A. T.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marsi, M.

M. Kiskinova, M. Marsi, E. di Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, Surf. Rev. Lett. 6, 265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maser, J.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michette, A. G.

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, and A. Svintsov, Opt. Commun. 245, 249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niemann, B.

B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Hambach, G. Schneider, D. Weiss, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 857 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ollinger, C.

C. Fuhse, C. Ollinger, and T. Salditt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 254801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peuker, M.

D. Hambach, M. Peuker, and G. Schneider, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 877 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pfauntsch, S. J.

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, and A. Svintsov, Opt. Commun. 245, 249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pilvi, T.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plontke, R.

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Raabe, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rekawa, S.

Ritala, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudolph, D.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, and O. Christ, Zone Plates for X-Ray Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

Rymell, L.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sakdinawat, A.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photon. 4, 840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salditt, T.

C. Fuhse, C. Ollinger, and T. Salditt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 254801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

Schliebe, T.

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Hambach, G. Schneider, D. Weiss, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 857 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, and O. Christ, Zone Plates for X-Ray Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

Schneider, G.

D. Hambach, M. Peuker, and G. Schneider, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 877 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Hambach, G. Schneider, D. Weiss, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 857 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C. G.

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 054802(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seemann, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Bernd, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senoner, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skibowski, M.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Bernd, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephenson, G. B.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolberg, I.

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Svintsov, A.

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, and A. Svintsov, Opt. Commun. 245, 249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teubner, U.

Theobald, W.

van der Veen, J. E.

C. Bergemann, H. Keymeulen, and J. E. van der Veen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 204801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Veen, J. F.

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, S.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, D.

B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Hambach, G. Schneider, D. Weiss, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 857 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

T. Wilhein, D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, E. Förster, R. Hässner, W. Theobald, and R. Sauerbrey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zierbock, M.

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Microelectron. Eng.

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photon. 4, 840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. Chao, B. H. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Bernd, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Hambach, G. Schneider, D. Weiss, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 857 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hambach, M. Peuker, and G. Schneider, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 877 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, and A. Svintsov, Opt. Commun. 245, 249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Bergemann, Phys. Rev. B 73, 245331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 054802(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fuhse, C. Ollinger, and T. Salditt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 254801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Bergemann, H. Keymeulen, and J. E. van der Veen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 204801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Rev. Lett.

M. Kiskinova, M. Marsi, E. di Fabrizio, and M. Gentili, Surf. Rev. Lett. 6, 265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, and O. Christ, Zone Plates for X-Ray Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Point-to-point imaging with a reflection photon sieve. (center) Diffractive optical element consisting of appropriately shaped and arranged nanomirrors, each one centered on zones (dark rings) that lead to constructive interference. (bottom right) Corresponding inverted pattern of nanoabsorbers with the same diffraction properties.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Separation of first- and zero-order light for conventional transmission Fresnel zone plates. (a) On-axis and (b) off-axis illumination. In both cases a central stop (CS) and an order-sorting aperture (OSA) are used. Typical intensity profiles in the focal plane are indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Smallest structure size ( w min ) of a diffractive optical element, as required to achieve a spatial resolution of Δ x = Δ y = 200 nm . False color representation of the dependence of w min on the angle of incidence α and the diffraction angle β. Two configurations for | α β | = 3 ° are indicated: (a)  α = 90 ° and (b)  α = 21 ° .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Focal plane intensities of various diffraction optics with a spatial resolution of Δ x = Δ y 300 nm . (a) Calculated focal plane intensities for a transmission Fresnel zone plate (TZP, blue solid curve), a reflection zone plate (RZP, gray dotted curve), and a reflection photon sieve with Weber-type transmission window (RPS, red dashed curve). (b) Focal intensity distribution of a prototype reflection photon sieve (blue dots), measured by a knife-edge scan. The spatial resolution is given by the FWHM of the derivative (red dashed curve) of the fit (gray solid curve) to the experimental data. (c) Intensity derivative as a function of z.

Equations (1)

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r + s = p + q + m · n · λ ,

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