Abstract

We demonstrate terahertz wave generation and detection capabilities up to 6THz without the need for solid state materials, biased electrodes, or forward propagating signal collection. An “all air–plasma” terahertz system is used to encode explosive material resonant signatures into the 357nm nitrogen fluorescence line of a bichromatic field-induced laser plasma filament. These results show the practicability to extend these measurements to remote locations where terahertz pulse information is no longer limited by water vapor absorption, phonon resonance, or signal collection directionality.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. G. Davies, A. D. Burnett, W. Fan, E. H. Linfield, and J. E. Cunningham, Mater. Today 11, 18 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Ho, M. Pepper, and P. Taday, Nat. Photonics 2, 541(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. Wu and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B6 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Wanke, M. A. Mangan, and R. J. Foltynowicz, “Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation,” SAND2005-6389 (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).
  9. J. Dai and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021117 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, Opt. Lett. 25, 1210(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kress, and T. Löffler, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X. C. Zhang, Opt. Express 15, 12060 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Hai-Bo, Z. Hua, N. Karpowicz, C. Yunqing, and Z. Xi-Cheng, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041505 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Dai and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B6 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Davies, A. D. Burnett, W. Fan, E. H. Linfield, and J. E. Cunningham, Mater. Today 11, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Ho, M. Pepper, and P. Taday, Nat. Photonics 2, 541(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kress, and T. Löffler, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X. C. Zhang, Opt. Express 15, 12060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hai-Bo, Z. Hua, N. Karpowicz, C. Yunqing, and Z. Xi-Cheng, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. C. Wanke, M. A. Mangan, and R. J. Foltynowicz, “Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation,” SAND2005-6389 (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Q. Wu and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, B.

Bastiaans, G. J.

Burnett, A. D.

A. G. Davies, A. D. Burnett, W. Fan, E. H. Linfield, and J. E. Cunningham, Mater. Today 11, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chateauneuf, M.

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X. C. Zhang, Opt. Express 15, 12060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D. J.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. G. Davies, A. D. Burnett, W. Fan, E. H. Linfield, and J. E. Cunningham, Mater. Today 11, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Daigle, J.-F.

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

A. G. Davies, A. D. Burnett, W. Fan, E. H. Linfield, and J. E. Cunningham, Mater. Today 11, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, J.

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

A. G. Davies, A. D. Burnett, W. Fan, E. H. Linfield, and J. E. Cunningham, Mater. Today 11, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foltynowicz, R. J.

M. C. Wanke, M. A. Mangan, and R. J. Foltynowicz, “Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation,” SAND2005-6389 (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

Glownia, J. H.

Hai-Bo, L.

L. Hai-Bo, Z. Hua, N. Karpowicz, C. Yunqing, and Z. Xi-Cheng, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, J.

Helm, H.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ho, L.

L. Ho, M. Pepper, and P. Taday, Nat. Photonics 2, 541(2008).
[CrossRef]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Hoffmann, M. C.

Hua, Z.

L. Hai-Bo, Z. Hua, N. Karpowicz, C. Yunqing, and Z. Xi-Cheng, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Hai-Bo, Z. Hua, N. Karpowicz, C. Yunqing, and Z. Xi-Cheng, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-Y.

Kress, M.

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kress, and T. Löffler, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lesimple, A.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

A. G. Davies, A. D. Burnett, W. Fan, E. H. Linfield, and J. E. Cunningham, Mater. Today 11, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kress, and T. Löffler, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mamer, O.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, M. A.

M. C. Wanke, M. A. Mangan, and R. J. Foltynowicz, “Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation,” SAND2005-6389 (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

Marceau, C.

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

Pepper, M.

L. Ho, M. Pepper, and P. Taday, Nat. Photonics 2, 541(2008).
[CrossRef]

Price-Gallagher, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

Roskos, H.

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kress, and T. Löffler, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schyja, V.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P.

L. Ho, M. Pepper, and P. Taday, Nat. Photonics 2, 541(2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Theberge, F.

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M.

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kress, and T. Löffler, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.-J.

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M. C.

M. C. Wanke, M. A. Mangan, and R. J. Foltynowicz, “Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation,” SAND2005-6389 (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

Winnewisser, C.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xi-Cheng, Z.

L. Hai-Bo, Z. Hua, N. Karpowicz, C. Yunqing, and Z. Xi-Cheng, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

Yuan, S.

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yunqing, C.

L. Hai-Bo, Z. Hua, N. Karpowicz, C. Yunqing, and Z. Xi-Cheng, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Q. Wu and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X. C. Zhang, Opt. Express 15, 12060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X. C. Zhang, Opt. Express 15, 12060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Q. Wu and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X. C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kress, and T. Löffler, Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today (1)

A. G. Davies, A. D. Burnett, W. Fan, E. H. Linfield, and J. E. Cunningham, Mater. Today 11, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Ho, M. Pepper, and P. Taday, Nat. Photonics 2, 541(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X. C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

L. Hai-Bo, Z. Hua, N. Karpowicz, C. Yunqing, and Z. Xi-Cheng, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. C. Wanke, M. A. Mangan, and R. J. Foltynowicz, “Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation,” SAND2005-6389 (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

“All air–plasma” THz spectroscopy system. Air–plasma filaments are used for both generation and detection of the THz electromagnetic radiation. Light blue, THz; red, 800 nm pulse; blue, 400 nm pulse; purple, nitrogen fluorescence. Nitrogen fluorescence emitted from the probe plasma carries the encoded THz pulse information.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) THz pulses recovered from the REEF and EO sampling method using a 100 μm thick 110 GaP crystal. (b) Corresponding spectrum after Fourier transformation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) THz waveforms for pellet samples NG, 2,4-DNT, and HMX containing 20% chemical mixed with polyethylene (PE) obtained using EO sampling. (b) Absorbance signatures corresponding to samples in (a). (c) Identical samples and corresponding waveforms obtained using REEF encoding. (d) Absorbance signatures corresponding to samples in (c). All curves are offset for clarity.

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