Abstract

We demonstrate a novel (to our knowledge) method for high sensitivity measurement of pulsed light at the telecommunication wavelength of 1558nm using a GaAsP photomultiplier tube. By modulating the input power and analyzing the harmonic components, high sensitivity third-order autocorrelation is obtained in the wavelength and power regimes where a mixture of two-photon absorption and three-photon absorption in the photomultiplier tube is present.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

2009 (1)

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPA5.

2006 (1)

2004 (3)

2002 (2)

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Roth, T. E. Murphy, and C. Xu, Opt. Lett. 27, 2076 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1990 (1)

R. G. Freeman, D. L. Gilliland, and F. E. Lytle, Anal. Chem. 62, 2216 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Bergman, K.

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cha, M.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. C. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, B.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPA5.

Dinu, M.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPA5.

Freeman, R. G.

R. G. Freeman, D. L. Gilliland, and F. E. Lytle, Anal. Chem. 62, 2216 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gilliland, D. L.

R. G. Freeman, D. L. Gilliland, and F. E. Lytle, Anal. Chem. 62, 2216 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPA5.

Hayat, A.

Ippen, E. P.

Jasapara, J.

Kilper, D. C.

Kippelen, B.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. C. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPA5.

Langlois, P.

Lytle, F. E.

R. G. Freeman, D. L. Gilliland, and F. E. Lytle, Anal. Chem. 62, 2216 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Major, A.

Marder, S. R.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. C. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, J. C.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. C. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mero, M.

Monat, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPA5.

Moss, D. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPA5.

Murphy, T. E.

Nevet, A.

Nicholson, J. W.

O’Faolain, L.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPA5.

Orenstein, M.

Ramos-Ortiz, G.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. C. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Roth, J. M.

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Roth, T. E. Murphy, and C. Xu, Opt. Lett. 27, 2076 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

Salem, R.

Smith, P. W. E.

Stuart, H. R.

Thayumanavan, S.

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. C. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPA5.

Xu, C.

J. M. Roth, T. E. Murphy, and C. Xu, Opt. Lett. 27, 2076 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, J.

Anal. Chem. (1)

R. G. Freeman, D. L. Gilliland, and F. E. Lytle, Anal. Chem. 62, 2216 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Ramos-Ortiz, M. Cha, S. Thayumanavan, J. C. Mendez, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Other (1)

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPA5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup. λ / 2 , half-wave plate; MZ, intensity modulator; LPF, long-pass filter. (b) Measured autocorrelation trace showing a mixture of 2PA and 3PA in the PMT. Inset shows response of the PMT versus incident pulse energy. A linear fit to the log–log plot gives a slope of 2.46.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raw data of the modulated 2PA and 3PA autocorrelation trace. Inset shows an enlarged view of the modulated interference fringes around the peak of the trace. (b) Power spectrum of the raw data. (c) Demodulated and filtered 3PA autocorrelation trace extracted from the raw data. Inset shows an enlarged view of the demodulated interference fringes around the peak of the trace.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Calculated peak-to-baseline ratio as a function of the total harmonic distortion of the sinusoidal modulation for various incident powers on the PMT. The arrow indicates the experimental conditions. (b) Simulation result of a demodulated third-order autocorrelation trace with perfect modulation. (c) Simulation result of a demodulated third-order autocorrelation trace with our experimental conditions.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = σ 1 I + σ 2 I 2 + σ 3 I 3 ,
I = I 0 ( 1 + a sin ω t ) ,
R a 3 σ 3 I 0 3 sin 3 ω t + O ( 0 , ω , 2 ω ) ,

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