Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate an enhanced evanescent field fiber refractometer based on a tapered multimode fiber sandwiched between two single-mode fibers. Experiments show that this fiber sensor offers ultrahigh sensitivity [better than 1900nm/RIU at a refractive index (RI) of 1.44] for RI measurements within the range of 1.331.44, in agreement with the theoretical predictions. This is the highest value reported to date (to our knowledge) in the literature.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

2010

J.-L. Kou, J. Feng, Q.-J. Wang, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Opt. Lett. 35, 2308 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Han, F. W. Guo, and Y. F. Lu, Opt. Lett. 35, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

Z. Tian, S. S. Yam, and H. Loock, Opt. Lett. 33, 1105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

Q. Wang and G. Farrell, Opt. Lett. 31, 317 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Monzón-Hernández and J. Villatoro, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 115, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro, and D. Luna-Moreno, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110, 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F. J.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Caldas, P.

Ding, M.

Dulashko, Y.

Fan, X.

M. Sumetsky, R. S. Windeler, Y. Dulashko, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 15, 14376 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Anal. Chem. 79, 930 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, G.

Feng, J.

Frazao, O.

Granqvist, N.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, F. W.

Han, M.

Hanumegowda, N. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hernáez, M.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

Kou, J.-L.

Liang, H. M.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loock, H.

Lougnot, D. J.

Lu, Y. F.

Lu, Y.-Q.

Luna-Moreno, D.

D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro, and D. Luna-Moreno, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110, 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marques, P. V. S.

Matías, I. R.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miranto, H.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

D. Monzón-Hernández and J. Villatoro, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 115, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro, and D. Luna-Moreno, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110, 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patel, B. C.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sadowski, J. W.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

Semenova, Y.

Soppera, O.

Stica, C. J.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Suter, J. D.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Anal. Chem. 79, 930 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ti, Y.

Tian, Z.

Turck, C.

Viitala, T.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Villar, I. Del

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Villatoro, J.

D. Monzón-Hernández and J. Villatoro, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 115, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro, and D. Luna-Moreno, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110, 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B. C.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Q.-J.

White, I.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Anal. Chem. 79, 930 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

Wu, Q.

Xu, F.

Yam, S. S.

Yliperttula, M.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zamarreño, C. R.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Anal. Chem. 79, 930 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zourob, M.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Anal. Chem. 79, 930 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Anal. Chem. 79, 930 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

H. M. Liang, H. Miranto, N. Granqvist, J. W. Sadowski, T. Viitala, B. C. Wang, and M. Yliperttula, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro, and D. Luna-Moreno, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110, 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Monzón-Hernández and J. Villatoro, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 115, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configuration of the STMS structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated amplitude of optical fields using a WABPM for (a) untapered and (b) tapered step-index MMF sandwiched between two standard SMFs and (c) optical field image for tapered region within the MMF section [magnification of (b)]. The length of the untapered MMF is 40 mm ; the diameter and the length of the uniform waist are 30 μm and 150 μm , respectively; and the operating wavelength is 1550 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup for fiber tapering. (b) Microscope image of tapered MMF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated and measured spectral responses of untapered and tapered SMS over a wavelength range of 1500 1600 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated and measured peak wavelength shifts as a function of the RI. Inset, measured spectral responses of tapered SMS with surrounding RI liquids of 1.33 and 1.34, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Resolution for Evanescent Field Fiber Refractometric Sensors (Assuming the Minimum Resolution of the Wavelength Peak Shift Is 10 pm)

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