Abstract

Refractive index gradients in materials or at material interfaces lead to x-ray diffraction. Interference of this radiation with adjacent x-ray waves causes phase contrast that can be used for imaging purposes if an x-ray source with sufficient spatial coherence is used. The imaging modality presented here uses hard x radiation diffracted at interfaces, but requires only little spatial coherence. We report experiments showing, first, that image contrast is not diminished by motional blurring, and second, that contrast can be increased by orders of magnitude relative to in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging. These properties substantially broaden the applicability of phase-sensitive imaging to moving samples and very weak density gradients.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, Nature 384, 335 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. C. Carroll, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 997 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. Rapacchi, Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 251, 910 (2009).
  4. A. F. Stein, J. Ilavsky, R. Kopace, E. E. Bennett, and H. Wen, Opt. Express 18, 13271 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 108105/1 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Reich, C. M. Laperle, X. Li, B. Ahr, F. Benesch-Lee, and C. G. Rose-Petruck, Opt. Lett. 32, 427 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. X. Chen and G. Diebold, Science 270, 963 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2774 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. OPTISON is a trademark of GE Healthcare.
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed.(Pergamon, 1980).

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. Rapacchi, Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 251, 910 (2009).

2008 (1)

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. C. Carroll, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 108105/1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Reich, C. M. Laperle, X. Li, B. Ahr, F. Benesch-Lee, and C. G. Rose-Petruck, Opt. Lett. 32, 427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2774 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, Nature 384, 335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. X. Chen and G. Diebold, Science 270, 963 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed.(Pergamon, 1980).

Ahr, B.

C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Reich, C. M. Laperle, X. Li, B. Ahr, F. Benesch-Lee, and C. G. Rose-Petruck, Opt. Lett. 32, 427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anastasio, M. A.

C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benesch-Lee, F.

Bennett, E. E.

A. F. Stein, J. Ilavsky, R. Kopace, E. E. Bennett, and H. Wen, Opt. Express 18, 13271 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. Rapacchi, Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 251, 910 (2009).

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. C. Carroll, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed.(Pergamon, 1980).

Bunk, O.

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 108105/1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, S. C.

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. C. Carroll, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. X.

H. X. Chen and G. Diebold, Science 270, 963 (1995).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 108105/1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diebold, G.

H. X. Chen and G. Diebold, Science 270, 963 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Diebold, G. J.

C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, D.

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2774 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, Nature 384, 335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gureyev, T. E.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, Nature 384, 335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hegedus, M. M.

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. Rapacchi, Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 251, 910 (2009).

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. C. Carroll, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilavsky, J.

Kopace, R.

Kottler, C.

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 108105/1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laperle, C. M.

C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Reich, C. M. Laperle, X. Li, B. Ahr, F. Benesch-Lee, and C. G. Rose-Petruck, Opt. Lett. 32, 427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

C. Reich, C. M. Laperle, X. Li, B. Ahr, F. Benesch-Lee, and C. G. Rose-Petruck, Opt. Lett. 32, 427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nohammer, B.

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 108105/1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pogany, A.

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2774 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, Nature 384, 335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rapacchi, S.

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. Rapacchi, Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 251, 910 (2009).

Reich, C.

Rose-Petruck, C.

C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rose-Petruck, C. G.

Shi, D.

C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solak, H. H.

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stein, A. F.

Stevenson, A. W.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, Nature 384, 335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wands, J. R.

C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wen, H.

A. F. Stein, J. Ilavsky, R. Kopace, E. E. Bennett, and H. Wen, Opt. Express 18, 13271 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. Rapacchi, Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 251, 910 (2009).

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. C. Carroll, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkins, S. W.

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2774 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, Nature 384, 335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wintermeyer, P.

C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed.(Pergamon, 1980).

Ziegler, E.

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Laperle, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. A. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. C. Carroll, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, Nature 384, 335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 108105/1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) (1)

H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, M. M. Hegedus, and S. Rapacchi, Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 251, 910 (2009).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2774 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. X. Chen and G. Diebold, Science 270, 963 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

OPTISON is a trademark of GE Healthcare.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed.(Pergamon, 1980).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of ultrafast imaging setups for PDPCI and SHI. A liquid jet was chosen as the sample. The only significant difference between the arrangements is the addition of an absorption grid with a 50.8 μm pitch in the SHI setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the image processing steps of SHI. The original image of a liquid sample jet containing 75 nm carbon nanoparticles is reproduced on the left side. 200 ps laser pulses illuminate the jet at the position indicated by the straight arrow. The image is Fourier transformed, yielding the spatial frequency spectrum at the top. Selecting the zeroth- and the first-order areas and back transforming them yields S 0 , the zeroth-order harmonic image (middle), and S 1 , the first-order harmonic image (right). The intensity profiles are shown at the bottom.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized first-order images ( ) of two vials containing Optison before (left) and after (right) sonication. The x-ray absorbance and the first-order scatter signal averaged over the indicated area in the pictures are plotted below the pictures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PDPCI, phase-contrast profile of an image of a 25 μm thick Kapton foil plotted on a logarithmic scale; SHI, scatter image profile extracted from the same exposure.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 0 ( x ) I ( x , z ) I 0 ( x ) = λ z 2 π φ 2 ( x ) x 2 = λ 2 z r e 2 π ρ e 2 ( x ) x 2 ,
S ¯ 1 = log ( S 1 / G 1 S 0 / G 0 ) .
Δ S ¯ 1 = S ¯ 1 , bubbles S ¯ 1 , no bubbles S ¯ 1 , bubbles ,
Δ α λ 2 π φ ( x ) x = r e λ 2 2 π ρ e ( x ) x ,

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