Abstract

A refractive index (RI) sensor based on a novel fiber structure that consists of a single-mode–multimode–single-mode (SMS) fiber structure followed by a fiber Bragg grating was demonstrated. The multimode fiber in the SMS structure excites cladding modes within output single-mode fiber (SMF) and recouple the reflected cladding Bragg wavelength to the input SMF core. By measuring the relative Bragg wavelength shift between core and cladding Bragg wavelengths, the RI can be determined. Experimentally we have achieved a maximum sensitivity of 7.33nm/RIU (RI unit) at RI range from 1.324 to 1.439.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, and J. Albert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and W. Yan, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

A. Iadicicoo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765(2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. Monerie, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 535 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ahlfeldt, H.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

T. Guo, H. Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, Opt. Express 17, 5736 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, and J. Albert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Asseh, A.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

Bennion, I.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

A. Iadicicoo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bette, S.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, and J. Albert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caucheteur, C.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, and J. Albert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, and J. Albert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Iadicicoo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Iadicicoo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ecke, W.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Edwall, G.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, G.

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765(2001).
[CrossRef]

Frazao, O.

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Iadicicoo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Guo, F. W.

Guo, T.

Han, M.

Hatta, A. M.

Iadicicoo, A.

A. Iadicicoo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

Laffont, G.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765(2001).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. F.

Martynkien, T.

Megret, P.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, and J. Albert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, W. S.

Monerie, M.

M. Monerie, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 535 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sahlgren, B.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandgren, S.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

Schroeder, K.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, Y.

Smith, P. W. E.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stubbe, R.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Urbanczyk, W.

Wang, P.

Wang, Q.

Willsch, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, J.

Wu, Q.

Wuilpart, M.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, and J. Albert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

Zhang, L.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Monerie, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 535 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Iadicicoo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, and J. Albert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and W. Yan, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765(2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of SMS + FBG refractometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated coupling coefficients to the output SMF for different modes in the SMS structure as a function of MMF length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (a) transmission spectrum of the SMS fiber structure, (b) reflective spectrum of a single FBG, and (c) reflective spectrum of SMS + FBG .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured reflective spectral responses of (a)  λ 0 , (b)  λ 1 , and (c)  λ 2 at different SRIs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured and (b) simulated relative wavelength shift between core and cladding Bragg wavelengths versus RI.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( r , 0 ) = m = 1 M b m Ψ m ( r ) ,
b m = 0 E ( r , 0 ) Ψ m ( r ) r d r 0 Ψ m ( r ) Ψ m ( r ) r d r .
E ( r , z ) = m = 1 M b m Ψ m ( r ) exp ( j β m z ) ,
c n = 0 E ( r , z ) Φ n ( r ) r d r 0 Φ n ( r ) Φ n ( r ) r d r ,
λ = 2 n eff ( n ) Λ ,

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