Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate the propagation of slow/fast light in an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) using mutually modulated cross-gain modulation. The group velocity of the light signal can be manipulated by the effect of gain cross-saturation modulation by a saturating light at an arbitrary wavelength in the gain bandwidth of the EDF. The ultraslow propagation with a small group velocity of 5.6×103c (c is the light speed in free space) and superluminal propagation with a negative group velocity of 1.1×103c has been observed under different modulation phases.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2010

S. Sternklar, E. Sarid, M. Wart, and E. Granot, J. Opt. 12, 104016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Sternklar, E. Sarid, A. Arbel, and E. Granot, Opt. Lett. 34, 2832 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Qian, L. Zhan, H. G. Li, X. Hu, J. S. Peng, L. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Opt. Express 17, 22217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shin, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Commun. 282, 2085 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Arrieta-Yañez, S. Melle, O. G. Calderón, and F. Carreño, Phys. Rev. A 80, 011804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. T. Mok, C. M. De Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. Longhi, M. Marano, and P. Laporta, Phys. Rev. E 65, 045602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature 406, 277 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, and R. K. Lee, Opt. Lett. 24, 711 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, and Z. Dutton, Nature 397, 594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, D. Pitcher, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 34, 1958 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991

Arbel, A.

Arrieta-Yañez, F.

F. Arrieta-Yañez, S. Melle, O. G. Calderón, and F. Carreño, Phys. Rev. A 80, 011804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

H. Shin, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Commun. 282, 2085 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calderón, O. G.

F. Arrieta-Yañez, S. Melle, O. G. Calderón, and F. Carreño, Phys. Rev. A 80, 011804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carreño, F.

F. Arrieta-Yañez, S. Melle, O. G. Calderón, and F. Carreño, Phys. Rev. A 80, 011804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dahan, D.

De Sterke, C. M.

J. T. Mok, C. M. De Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature 406, 277 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, and Z. Dutton, Nature 397, 594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

J. T. Mok, C. M. De Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

Ellis, A. D.

A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, D. Pitcher, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 34, 1958 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Granot, E.

S. Sternklar, E. Sarid, M. Wart, and E. Granot, J. Opt. 12, 104016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Sternklar, E. Sarid, A. Arbel, and E. Granot, Opt. Lett. 34, 2832 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, and Z. Dutton, Nature 397, 594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, and Z. Dutton, Nature 397, 594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herraez, M. G.

Hu, W.

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

K. Qian, L. Zhan, H. G. Li, X. Hu, J. S. Peng, L. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Opt. Express 17, 22217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, L. Zhan, K. Qian, J. M. Liu, Q. S. Shen, X. Hu, and S. Y. Luo, “Superluminal propagation at negative group velocity in optical fibers based on Brillouin lasing oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Kashyap, R.

A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, D. Pitcher, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 34, 1958 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A. E.

A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, D. Pitcher, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 34, 1958 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmich, A.

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature 406, 277 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laming, R. I.

Laporta, P.

S. Longhi, M. Marano, and P. Laporta, Phys. Rev. E 65, 045602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Lepeshkin, N. N.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H. G.

Littler, I. C. M.

J. T. Mok, C. M. De Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

L. Zhang, L. Zhan, K. Qian, J. M. Liu, Q. S. Shen, X. Hu, and S. Y. Luo, “Superluminal propagation at negative group velocity in optical fibers based on Brillouin lasing oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Longhi, S.

S. Longhi, M. Marano, and P. Laporta, Phys. Rev. E 65, 045602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, S. Y.

L. Zhang, L. Zhan, K. Qian, J. M. Liu, Q. S. Shen, X. Hu, and S. Y. Luo, “Superluminal propagation at negative group velocity in optical fibers based on Brillouin lasing oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Marano, M.

S. Longhi, M. Marano, and P. Laporta, Phys. Rev. E 65, 045602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melle, S.

F. Arrieta-Yañez, S. Melle, O. G. Calderón, and F. Carreño, Phys. Rev. A 80, 011804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mok, J. T.

J. T. Mok, C. M. De Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D. G.

A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, D. Pitcher, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 34, 1958 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morkel, P. R.

Nesset, D.

A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, D. Pitcher, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 34, 1958 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A. Gaeta, Opt. Express 13, 6092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, D. N.

Peng, J. S.

Pitcher, D.

A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, D. Pitcher, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 34, 1958 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qian, K.

K. Qian, L. Zhan, H. G. Li, X. Hu, J. S. Peng, L. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Opt. Express 17, 22217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, L. Zhan, K. Qian, J. M. Liu, Q. S. Shen, X. Hu, and S. Y. Luo, “Superluminal propagation at negative group velocity in optical fibers based on Brillouin lasing oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Sarid, E.

S. Sternklar, E. Sarid, M. Wart, and E. Granot, J. Opt. 12, 104016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Sternklar, E. Sarid, A. Arbel, and E. Granot, Opt. Lett. 34, 2832 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweinsberg, A.

H. Shin, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Commun. 282, 2085 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J.

Sharping, J. E.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q. S.

L. Zhang, L. Zhan, K. Qian, J. M. Liu, Q. S. Shen, X. Hu, and S. Y. Luo, “Superluminal propagation at negative group velocity in optical fibers based on Brillouin lasing oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Shin, H.

H. Shin, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Commun. 282, 2085 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, K. Y.

Sternklar, S.

S. Sternklar, E. Sarid, M. Wart, and E. Granot, J. Opt. 12, 104016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Sternklar, E. Sarid, A. Arbel, and E. Granot, Opt. Lett. 34, 2832 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tachibana, M.

Thevenaz, L.

Wang, L. J.

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature 406, 277 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wart, M.

S. Sternklar, E. Sarid, M. Wart, and E. Granot, J. Opt. 12, 104016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. X.

Xu, Y.

Yariv, A.

Yi, L.

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, L.

K. Qian, L. Zhan, H. G. Li, X. Hu, J. S. Peng, L. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Opt. Express 17, 22217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, L. Zhan, K. Qian, J. M. Liu, Q. S. Shen, X. Hu, and S. Y. Luo, “Superluminal propagation at negative group velocity in optical fibers based on Brillouin lasing oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Zhang, L.

K. Qian, L. Zhan, H. G. Li, X. Hu, J. S. Peng, L. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Opt. Express 17, 22217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, L. Zhan, K. Qian, J. M. Liu, Q. S. Shen, X. Hu, and S. Y. Luo, “Superluminal propagation at negative group velocity in optical fibers based on Brillouin lasing oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Zhu, Z.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, D. Pitcher, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 34, 1958 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

S. Sternklar, E. Sarid, M. Wart, and E. Granot, J. Opt. 12, 104016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

J. T. Mok, C. M. De Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Phys. 2, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, and Z. Dutton, Nature 397, 594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature 406, 277 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

H. Shin, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Commun. 282, 2085 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

F. Arrieta-Yañez, S. Melle, O. G. Calderón, and F. Carreño, Phys. Rev. A 80, 011804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

S. Longhi, M. Marano, and P. Laporta, Phys. Rev. E 65, 045602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. Zhang, L. Zhan, K. Qian, J. M. Liu, Q. S. Shen, X. Hu, and S. Y. Luo, “Superluminal propagation at negative group velocity in optical fibers based on Brillouin lasing oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: DFB, distributed feedback laser; TLS, tunable laser source; PC, polarization controller; EOM, electro-optic modulator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; D1, D2, detectors; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results when the Ch1 amplitude is 0.8 V . (a) Output signal with different modulation phases. (b) Output signal with and without saturating light. (c) Theoretical and experimental group delay variation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results when the Ch1 amplitude is 0.4 V . (a) Output signal with different modulation phases. (b) Output signal with and without saturating light. (c) Theoretical and experimental group delay variation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission power and fractional delay variation with the saturating light wavelength.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A 1 ( z , t ) = A 1 + a 1 2 e i ( K z + Ω t ) + c.c. ,
A 2 ( z , t ) = A 2 ( z ) + a 2 2 e i ( K z + Ω t ) + c.c.
A 2 ( z , t ) z + 1 v A 2 ( z , t ) t = g ( z , t ) 2 A 2 ( z , t ) ,
t d = L n c + φ + θ B Ω ,

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