Abstract

We report that a modified Z-scan method by nonlinear ellipse rotation (NER) can be used to discriminate true nonlinear refraction from thermal effect in the transient regime and steady state. The combination of Z-scan and NER allows us to measure the third-order nonlinear susceptibility component without the influence of thermal–optical nonlinearity. The experimental results of pure CS2 and CS2 solutions of nigrosine verify that the transient thermal effect can be successfully eliminated from the NER-modified Z-scan measurements. This method is also extended to the case in which thermal–optical nonlinearities depend on a high repetition rate of femtosecond laser pulses for the N,N-dimethylmethanamide solutions of graphene oxide.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, Opt. Commun. 245, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gnoli, L. Razzari, and M. Righini, Opt. Express 13, 7976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

L. Pálfalvi and J. Hebling, Appl. Phys. B 78, 775 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

1999

1997

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. Mcduff, J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Brochard, V. Grolier-Mazza, and R. Cabanel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Afonso, C. N.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, 2003).

Brochard, P.

Cabanel, R.

Campillo, A. J.

Chapple, P. B.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. Mcduff, J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. Q.

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, Opt. Commun. 245, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, R. E.

de Araújo, C. B.

de Nalda, R.

del Coso, R.

Falconieri, M.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, Appl. Phys. B 69, 133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, J. Opt. A 1, 662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Filho, E. L.

Gnoli, A.

Gomes, A. S. L.

Grolier-Mazza, V.

Hagan, D.

Hagan, D. J.

D. I. Kovsh, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, Appl. Opt. 38, 5168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hasselbeck, M. P.

M. Sheik-Bahae and M. P. Hasselbeck, in OSA Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2001), Vol.  IV, Chap. 17.

Hebling, J.

L. Pálfalvi and J. Hebling, Appl. Phys. B 78, 775 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, J. A.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. Mcduff, J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huston, A. L.

Justus, B. L.

Kovsh, D.

Kovsh, D. I.

Liu, Z. B.

Z. B. Liu, X. Q. Yan, J. G. Tian, W. Y. Zhou, and W. P. Zang, Opt. Express 15, 13351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, Opt. Commun. 245, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mcduff, R. G.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. Mcduff, J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mckay, T. J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. Mcduff, J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

Pálfalvi, L.

L. Pálfalvi and J. Hebling, Appl. Phys. B 78, 775 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rativa, D.

Razzari, L.

Requejo-Isidro, J.

Righini, M.

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, G.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, Appl. Phys. B 69, 133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae and M. P. Hasselbeck, in OSA Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2001), Vol.  IV, Chap. 17.

Solis, J.

Song, F.

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, Opt. Commun. 245, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Staromlynska, J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. Mcduff, J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J.

Suarez-Garcia, A.

Tian, J. G.

Z. B. Liu, X. Q. Yan, J. G. Tian, W. Y. Zhou, and W. P. Zang, Opt. Express 15, 13351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, Opt. Commun. 245, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E.

Van Stryland, E. W.

D. I. Kovsh, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, Appl. Opt. 38, 5168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X. Q.

Yang, J.

Yang, S.

Zang, W. P.

Z. B. Liu, X. Q. Yan, J. G. Tian, W. Y. Zhou, and W. P. Zang, Opt. Express 15, 13351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, Opt. Commun. 245, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. P.

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, Opt. Commun. 245, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. Y.

Z. B. Liu, X. Q. Yan, J. G. Tian, W. Y. Zhou, and W. P. Zang, Opt. Express 15, 13351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, Opt. Commun. 245, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

L. Pálfalvi and J. Hebling, Appl. Phys. B 78, 775 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, Appl. Phys. B 69, 133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. Mcduff, J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

M. Falconieri, J. Opt. A 1, 662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, Opt. Commun. 245, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, 2003).

M. Sheik-Bahae and M. P. Hasselbeck, in OSA Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2001), Vol.  IV, Chap. 17.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement of the NER-modified Z-scan method. D1 and D2 are the detectors. G1 is the polarizer, and G2 is the analyzer. λ / 4 is the quarter-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Closed-aperture Z-scan curves and (b)  the NER-modified Z-scan curves of pure CS 2 and the CS 2 solutions of nigrosine with beam waist radius 7 μm . The solid curves are the theoretical fits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Closed-aperture Z-scan cuves and (b)  the NER-modified Z-scan curves of pure DMF and the DMF solutions of graphene oxide with beam waist radius 20 μm . The solid curves are the theoretical fits.

Equations (1)

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T ( z ) = cos 2 α [ sin 2 ( Q φ ) + sin 2 φ ] + Q 4 Q ( sin 2 α sin 2 φ + cos 2 α cos 2 φ ) ,

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