Abstract

The intensity signal in optical coherence tomography contains information about the translational velocity of scatterers, and can be used to quantify blood flow. We apply principal component analysis to efficiently extract this information. We also study use of nonuniform temporal sampling of the intensity signal to increase the range of quantifiable flow velocities. We demonstrate this technique in simulation, phantom and in vivo blood flow measurements, and highlight its potential to enable three-dimensional wide-field mapping of blood flow using OCT.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. E. Bouma, S.-H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, and G. J. Tearney, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20, 111 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Kurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Opt. Lett. 33, 1530 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, Opt. Lett. 35, 43 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, Opt. Express 14, 7821 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, Opt. Express 15, 4083 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. B. Parthasarathy, W. J. Tom, A. Gopel, X. Zhang, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Express 16, 1975 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadžić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, Opt. Express 18, 2477 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 16, 12350 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Ren, T. Sun, D. J. MacDonald, M. J. Cobb, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 31, 927 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Wang and R. Wang, Opt. Lett. 35, 3538 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Barton and S. Stromski, Opt. Express 13, 5234 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. M. Kay, Modern Spectral Estimation (Prentice-Hall, 1993).
  15. B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 814 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing(Prentice Hall, 1998).
  17. B. Vakoc, S. Yun, J. de Boer, G. Tearney, and B. Bouma, Opt. Express 13, 5483 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

B. E. Bouma, S.-H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, and G. J. Tearney, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20, 111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2003 (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barry, S.

Bartlett, L. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J.

Boas, D. A.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, S.-H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, and G. J. Tearney, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20, 111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Cobb, M. J.

Davis, A. M.

de Boer, J.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A. K.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopel, A.

Gorczynska, I.

Gruber, A.

Hanson, S. R.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.

Hurst, S.

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Jain, A. K.

A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing(Prentice Hall, 1998).

Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jiang, J. Y.

Kay, S. M.

S. M. Kay, Modern Spectral Estimation (Prentice-Hall, 1993).

Kurana, M.

Lanning, R. M.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leung, M. K. K.

Li, X.

Ma, Z.

MacDonald, D. J.

Makita, S.

Mariampillai, A.

Moriyama, E. H.

Munce, N. R.

Munn, L. L.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padera, T. P.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parthasarathy, A. B.

Radhakrishnan, H.

Ren, H.

Ruvinskaya, S.

Sakadžic, S.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Standish, B. A.

Stromski, S.

Stylianopoulos, T.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, T.

Suter, M. J.

B. E. Bouma, S.-H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, and G. J. Tearney, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20, 111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, S.-H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, and G. J. Tearney, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20, 111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tom, W. J.

Tyrrell, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B.

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, S.-H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, and G. J. Tearney, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20, 111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, R.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y.

Wilson, B. C.

Wu, W.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yaseen, M. A.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S.

Yun, S.-H.

B. E. Bouma, S.-H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, and G. J. Tearney, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20, 111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

B. E. Bouma, S.-H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, and G. J. Tearney, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20, 111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Prog. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. M. Kay, Modern Spectral Estimation (Prentice-Hall, 1993).

A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing(Prentice Hall, 1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Simulated OFDI intensity signals are shown for different scatterer velocities. (b) Estimation using autocorrelation with a uniform sampling pattern ( N = 32 ). The dark curve presents the median estimate, and the yellow shaded band shows the 10%–90% interval about the median. (c) Estimation using the PCA method for a uniform sampling pattern ( N = 32 ). The median and the 10%–90% interval of estimated velocities of a translating rubber phantom using the PCA method are presented in red points. (d) Same as in (c), but with the nonuniform sampling pattern ( N = 32 ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Doppler OFDI B-scan of a mouse ear. The horizontal and vertical bars represent 500 and 20 μm , respectively. (b) and (c) Measured intensity signal from within a relatively slow-flowing and a fast-flowing blood vessel, respectively. Also shown by the bold red curve is the subsampled 32-point signal vector used as input in the PCA method.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 In Vivo Flow Estimates [mm/s]

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( t ) k = 1 M | E k 2 a k t | .
a k t + m δ t = a k m t , m < k N ,

Metrics