Abstract

We miniaturize all features in a previously introduced polarization-independent three-dimensional carpet invisibility cloak by more than a factor of 2. This leads to operation wavelengths in the visible. The structures are characterized by electron and optical microscopy. In contrast to our previous work at IR wavelengths, we can directly measure two-dimensional images at visible frequencies, perform control experiments from the backside, and compare the images with theory. We find excellent agreement. Furthermore, we study the wavelength dependence in the range from 900nm down to 500nm. Cloaking action deteriorates as the woodpile stop band at around 575nm is approached.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 22, 3578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, Y. Urzhumov, N. B. Kundtz, and N. I. Landy, Opt. Express 18, 21238 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, Science 328, 337 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[PubMed]

T. Ergin, J. C. Halimeh, N. Stenger, and M. Wegener, Opt. Express 18, 20535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, J. Blair, V. A. Tamma, W. Wu, S. J. Rhee, C. J. Summers, and W. Park, Opt. Express 17, 12922 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, Science 322, 384 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 8206 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbastathis, G.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, J.

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, Science 328, 337 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyba, M.

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 8206 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egner, A.

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 8206 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergin, T.

T. Ergin, J. C. Halimeh, N. Stenger, and M. Wegener, Opt. Express 18, 20535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, Science 328, 337 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, J.

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 22, 3578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Halimeh, J. C.

Hell, S. W.

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 8206 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakobs, S.

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 8206 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, K.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klar, T. A.

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 8206 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kundtz, N. B.

Landy, N. I.

Lee, J. H.

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, Geometry and Light: The Science of Invisibility (Dover, 2010).

Li, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H. F.

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W.

Pendry, J. B.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, Science 328, 337 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philbin, T. G.

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, Geometry and Light: The Science of Invisibility (Dover, 2010).

Poitras, C. B.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, S. J.

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, Science 322, 384 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, P.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, Y. Urzhumov, N. B. Kundtz, and N. I. Landy, Opt. Express 18, 21238 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, Science 328, 337 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, J. C. Halimeh, N. Stenger, and M. Wegener, Opt. Express 18, 20535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Summers, C. J.

Tamma, V. A.

Urzhumov, Y.

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 22, 3578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 22, 3578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, J. C. Halimeh, N. Stenger, and M. Wegener, Opt. Express 18, 20535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, Science 328, 337 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 22, 3578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun.

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[PubMed]

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 8206 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

V. M. Shalaev, Science 322, 384 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, Science 328, 337 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, Geometry and Light: The Science of Invisibility (Dover, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Colored oblique-view electron micrograph of the polymer reference (top) and carpet cloak (bottom) structures (fabricated on glass substrate and coated with 100 nm gold). The scale bar corresponds to 10 μm . (b) Corresponding focused-ion-beam cuts of nominally identical structures. The scale bar corresponds to 2 μm . (c) and (d) are true-color optical micrographs of the structures in (a) taken with an optical microscope under circularly polarized illumination at 700 nm wavelength. Note the identical distortions due to the bump in both structures in (c) when inspected from the air side (serving as a control experiment). When inspected from the glass-substrate side in (d), the reference structure (top) still shows pronounced dark stripes. In sharp contrast, the stripes essentially disappear for the cloaking structure (bottom). (e) and (f) are ray-tracing calculations corresponding to (c) and (d), respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) As Fig. 1d, but for rotation of the samples by 30 ° around an axis parallel to the bump. (b) Corresponding ray-tracing calculation. The white dashed ellipses highlight the bump region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured normal-incidence transmittance and reflectance spectra of the polymer woodpile taken on the reference structure before gold sputtering. (b) As Fig. 1d, but for different illumination wavelengths as indicated.

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