Abstract

Thanks to a portable dual-frequency Brillouin fiber laser and a 1.55μm photomixer, we report the generation of a highly coherent kilohertz level submillimeter wave emission. Low-cost telecommunications components are used to achieve very simple source architecture. The photomixer is composed of a unitravelling carrier photodiode integrated with an antenna. An emission at 316GHz is observed and analyzed thanks to heterodyne detection with a signal-to-noise ratio >65dB and a ~1kHz linewidth. The phase noise of the proposed source has the same performance at 1.7 and 316GHz. We show that this source has comparable or better phase noise compared to electrical oscillators and the tunability is much wider.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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O. Momeni and E. Afshari, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, C. Lee, B. Thomas, R. H. Lin, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 1925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Latkowski, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, G. Ducournau, A. Beck, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and J. F. Lampin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Mihélic, D. Bacquet, J. Zemmouri, and P. Szriftgiser, Opt. Lett. 35, 432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gross, P. Callahan, T. Clark, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and M. Dennis, Opt. Express 18, 13321 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Opt. Express 18, 20799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

F. Hindle, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, C. Yang, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photon. 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

M. R. Shirazi, S. W. Harun, K. Thambiratnam, M. Biglary, and H. Ahmad, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 2656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photon. 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. J. Drouin, F. W. Maiwald, and J. C. Pearson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2001

1996

M. Hyodo, M. Tani, S. Matsuura, N. Onodera, and K. Sakai, Electron. Lett. 32, 1589 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1982

Afshari, E.

O. Momeni and E. Afshari, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, H.

M. R. Shirazi, S. W. Harun, K. Thambiratnam, M. Biglary, and H. Ahmad, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 2656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

Akalin, T.

S. Latkowski, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, G. Ducournau, A. Beck, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and J. F. Lampin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, Electron. Lett. 44, 1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alouini, M.

Bacquet, D.

F. Mihélic, D. Bacquet, J. Zemmouri, and P. Szriftgiser, Opt. Lett. 35, 432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hindle, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, C. Yang, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baili, G.

Barbieri, S.

Barkan, A.

Beck, A.

S. Latkowski, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, G. Ducournau, A. Beck, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and J. F. Lampin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, Electron. Lett. 44, 1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

Beere, H. E.

Biglary, M.

M. R. Shirazi, S. W. Harun, K. Thambiratnam, M. Biglary, and H. Ahmad, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 2656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bocquet, R.

F. Hindle, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, C. Yang, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bretenaker, F.

Brunel, M.

Callahan, P.

Chattopadhyay, G.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, C. Lee, B. Thomas, R. H. Lin, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 1925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chodorow, M.

Clark, T.

Cliche, J.-F.

J.-F. Cliche, B. Shillue, M. Têtu, and M. Poulin, IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 349–352.
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

Debut, A.

Dengler, R.

Dennis, M.

Dolfi, D.

Drouin, B. J.

B. J. Drouin, F. W. Maiwald, and J. C. Pearson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ducournau, G.

S. Latkowski, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, G. Ducournau, A. Beck, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and J. F. Lampin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, Electron. Lett. 44, 1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Filloux, P.

Floch, A. Le

Gellie, P.

Geng, J.

Gill, J. J.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, C. Lee, B. Thomas, R. H. Lin, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 1925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

Harun, S. W.

M. R. Shirazi, S. W. Harun, K. Thambiratnam, M. Biglary, and H. Ahmad, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 2656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hindle, F.

F. Hindle, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, C. Yang, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, Electron. Lett. 44, 1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photon. 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

Huignard, J.-P.

Hyodo, M.

M. Hyodo, M. Tani, S. Matsuura, N. Onodera, and K. Sakai, Electron. Lett. 32, 1589 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

S. Matsuura and H. Ito, in THz Optoelectronics, K.Sakai, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 157–202.
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Khanna, S. P.

Kumar, S.

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photon. 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lampin, J. F.

S. Latkowski, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, G. Ducournau, A. Beck, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and J. F. Lampin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Opt. Express 18, 20799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, Electron. Lett. 44, 1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Landais, P.

S. Latkowski, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, G. Ducournau, A. Beck, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and J. F. Lampin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Latkowski, S.

S. Latkowski, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, G. Ducournau, A. Beck, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and J. F. Lampin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, C. Lee, B. Thomas, R. H. Lin, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 1925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R. H.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, C. Lee, B. Thomas, R. H. Lin, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 1925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Maestrini, A.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, C. Lee, B. Thomas, R. H. Lin, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 1925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maiwald, F. W.

B. J. Drouin, F. W. Maiwald, and J. C. Pearson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maldonado-Basilio, R.

S. Latkowski, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, G. Ducournau, A. Beck, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and J. F. Lampin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manquest, C.

Matsuura, S.

M. Hyodo, M. Tani, S. Matsuura, N. Onodera, and K. Sakai, Electron. Lett. 32, 1589 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuura and H. Ito, in THz Optoelectronics, K.Sakai, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 157–202.
[CrossRef]

Mehdi, I.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, C. Lee, B. Thomas, R. H. Lin, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 1925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mihélic, F.

Mittleman, D. M.

Molin, S.

Mollot, F.

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, Electron. Lett. 44, 1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Momeni, O.

O. Momeni and E. Afshari, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morvan, L.

Mouret, G.

F. Hindle, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, C. Yang, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, Electron. Lett. 44, 1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

Onodera, N.

M. Hyodo, M. Tani, S. Matsuura, N. Onodera, and K. Sakai, Electron. Lett. 32, 1589 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Parra-Cetina, J.

S. Latkowski, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, G. Ducournau, A. Beck, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and J. F. Lampin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. W.

B. J. Drouin, F. W. Maiwald, and J. C. Pearson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peytavit, E.

S. Latkowski, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, G. Ducournau, A. Beck, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and J. F. Lampin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, Electron. Lett. 44, 1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pillet, G.

Poulin, M.

J.-F. Cliche, B. Shillue, M. Têtu, and M. Poulin, IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 349–352.
[CrossRef]

Qin, Q.

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photon. 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Randoux, S.

Reno, J. L.

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photon. 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

Ritchie, D. A.

Sagnes, I.

Sakai, K.

M. Hyodo, M. Tani, S. Matsuura, N. Onodera, and K. Sakai, Electron. Lett. 32, 1589 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

Shaw, H.

Shillue, B.

J.-F. Cliche, B. Shillue, M. Têtu, and M. Poulin, IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 349–352.
[CrossRef]

Shirazi, M. R.

M. R. Shirazi, S. W. Harun, K. Thambiratnam, M. Biglary, and H. Ahmad, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 2656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

Sirtori, C.

Staines, S.

Stokes, L.

Szriftgiser, P.

F. Mihélic, D. Bacquet, J. Zemmouri, and P. Szriftgiser, Opt. Lett. 35, 432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hindle, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, C. Yang, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

M. Hyodo, M. Tani, S. Matsuura, N. Onodera, and K. Sakai, Electron. Lett. 32, 1589 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Têtu, M.

J.-F. Cliche, B. Shillue, M. Têtu, and M. Poulin, IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 349–352.
[CrossRef]

Thambiratnam, K.

M. R. Shirazi, S. W. Harun, K. Thambiratnam, M. Biglary, and H. Ahmad, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 2656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, B.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, C. Lee, B. Thomas, R. H. Lin, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 1925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Vallet, M.

Ward, J. S.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, C. Lee, B. Thomas, R. H. Lin, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 1925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Waterhouse, R.

Williams, B. S.

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photon. 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photon. 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

F. Hindle, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, C. Yang, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, Electron. Lett. 44, 1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaknoune, M.

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, Electron. Lett. 44, 1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zemmouri, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Latkowski, J. Parra-Cetina, R. Maldonado-Basilio, P. Landais, G. Ducournau, A. Beck, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and J. F. Lampin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Hyodo, M. Tani, S. Matsuura, N. Onodera, and K. Sakai, Electron. Lett. 32, 1589 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, Electron. Lett. 44, 1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

O. Momeni and E. Afshari, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech.

A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, C. Lee, B. Thomas, R. H. Lin, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 1925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

F. Hindle, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, C. Yang, G. Mouret, and R. Bocquet, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Shirazi, S. W. Harun, K. Thambiratnam, M. Biglary, and H. Ahmad, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 2656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photon. 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, Nat. Photon. 3, 732 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

B. J. Drouin, F. W. Maiwald, and J. C. Pearson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Matsuura and H. Ito, in THz Optoelectronics, K.Sakai, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 157–202.
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Cliche, B. Shillue, M. Têtu, and M. Poulin, IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 349–352.
[CrossRef]

Rohde & Schwarz, “R&S FSU spectrumanalyzer specifications,” http://www2.rohde-schwarz.com/file_12580/FSU_dat_sw_en.pdf.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

BFL architecture. FSR, free spectral range.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup used for spectral characterization of the submillimeter wave emitted thanks to the BFL and the UTC-PD photomixer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured spectra from the photomixing setup (1.7 and 316 GHz ) and comparison with the ESA at 316 GHz (resolution bandwidth ( RBW ) = 1 kHz , video bandwidth ( VBW ) = 3 kHz , and sweep time ( ST ) = 2 s ). Central frequency, 1.7 or 316 GHz , span = 2 MHz .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured spectra from the photomixing setup at 316 GHz ( RBW = 1 kHz , VBW = 3 kHz , ST = 20 s ).

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