Abstract

We present a modified end-fire coupling method to reconstruct two-dimensional index profiles of optical waveguides. The reconstruction is based on the measured differential optical fields and an inverse algorithm for the Helmholtz equation. The differential fields are obtained from spatially perturbed images recorded by a CCD camera. A closed-loop piezoelectric stage given a sinusoidal wave and an oil-immersion objective lens for high-resolution images are used in the measurement. A single-mode fiber and a Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide with known index profile at 632.8nm are measured for demonstration. The measured index profiles agree quite well with core regions of known index profiles.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

W.-S. Tsai, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061123 (2007).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

1996 (2)

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Brooks and S. Ruschin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 254 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

F. Caccavale, P. Chakraborty, A. Quaranta, I. Mansour, G. Gianello, S. Bosso, R. Corsini, and G. Mussi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5345 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, and W. Fann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835(1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. Helms, J. Schmidtchen, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 625 (1990).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

Ampem-Lassen, E.

Barai, S.

Bosso, S.

F. Caccavale, P. Chakraborty, A. Quaranta, I. Mansour, G. Gianello, S. Bosso, R. Corsini, and G. Mussi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5345 (1995).
[Crossref]

Brooks, D.

D. Brooks and S. Ruschin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 254 (1996).
[Crossref]

Caccavale, F.

F. Caccavale, Segato, I. Mansour, and M. Gianesin, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Caccavale, P. Chakraborty, A. Quaranta, I. Mansour, G. Gianello, S. Bosso, R. Corsini, and G. Mussi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5345 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, P.

F. Caccavale, P. Chakraborty, A. Quaranta, I. Mansour, G. Gianello, S. Bosso, R. Corsini, and G. Mussi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5345 (1995).
[Crossref]

Conchello, J.-A.

Corsini, R.

F. Caccavale, P. Chakraborty, A. Quaranta, I. Mansour, G. Gianello, S. Bosso, R. Corsini, and G. Mussi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5345 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fann, W.

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, and W. Fann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835(1995).
[Crossref]

Gianello, G.

F. Caccavale, P. Chakraborty, A. Quaranta, I. Mansour, G. Gianello, S. Bosso, R. Corsini, and G. Mussi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5345 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gianesin, M.

Helms, J.

J. Helms, J. Schmidtchen, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 625 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hunsperger, R. G.

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics (Springer, 2002).

Huntington, S. T.

Kawano, K.

K. Kawano and T. Kitoh, Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis (Wiley, 2001).
[Crossref]

Kitoh, T.

K. Kawano and T. Kitoh, Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis (Wiley, 2001).
[Crossref]

Mansour, I.

F. Caccavale, Segato, I. Mansour, and M. Gianesin, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Caccavale, P. Chakraborty, A. Quaranta, I. Mansour, G. Gianello, S. Bosso, R. Corsini, and G. Mussi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5345 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mussi, G.

F. Caccavale, P. Chakraborty, A. Quaranta, I. Mansour, G. Gianello, S. Bosso, R. Corsini, and G. Mussi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5345 (1995).
[Crossref]

Peng, J. L.

Petermann, K.

J. Helms, J. Schmidtchen, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 625 (1990).
[Crossref]

Quaranta, A.

F. Caccavale, P. Chakraborty, A. Quaranta, I. Mansour, G. Gianello, S. Bosso, R. Corsini, and G. Mussi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5345 (1995).
[Crossref]

Roberts, A.

Ruschin, S.

D. Brooks and S. Ruschin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 254 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schmidtchen, J.

J. Helms, J. Schmidtchen, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 625 (1990).
[Crossref]

Schuppert, B.

J. Helms, J. Schmidtchen, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 625 (1990).
[Crossref]

Segato,

Sharma, A.

Sidiroglou, F.

Tateda, M.

Tsai, W.-S.

W.-S. Tsai, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061123 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.-S.

W.-S. Tsai, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061123 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wei, C. C.

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, and W. Fann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835(1995).
[Crossref]

Wei, P. K.

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, and W. Fann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835(1995).
[Crossref]

Wei, P.-K.

W.-S. Tsai, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061123 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, and W. Fann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835(1995).
[Crossref]

W.-S. Tsai, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061123 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Brooks and S. Ruschin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 254 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Caccavale, P. Chakraborty, A. Quaranta, I. Mansour, G. Gianello, S. Bosso, R. Corsini, and G. Mussi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5345 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

F. Caccavale, Segato, I. Mansour, and M. Gianesin, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Barai and A. Sharma, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1514(2009).
[Crossref]

J. Helms, J. Schmidtchen, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 625 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics (Springer, 2002).

K. Kawano and T. Kitoh, Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis (Wiley, 2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) System setup for the differential optical-field measurement. (b) The measured mode image and line profiles of the mode, blue (measured) and red (calculated). (c) Frequency spectrum of the recorded sequence of the vibrating modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured guiding mode intensity and its first and second derivatives in x direction (a) I, (b)  I x , (c)  I x x ; in y direction, (d) I, (e)  I y , (f)  I y y .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstructed refractive index profile. (a) Three-dimensional colored surface. (b) Two-dimensional index profile with measured (solid curve) and known (dashed curve) cross-sectional plots in x direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured intensity profiles in (a) x and (b) y direction, and (c) reconstructed index profile of Ti : LiNbO 3 waveguide.

Equations (2)

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Δ n ( x , y ) 1 4 n s k 2 [ I x x I + I y y I 1 2 ( I x 2 + I y 2 ) I 2 ] + Δ n eff ,
I [ x ( t ) ] I [ x ( 0 ) ] + Δ x I x [ x ( 0 ) ] sin ω t + 1 4 Δ x 2 I x x [ x ( 0 ) ] cos 2 ω t ,

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