Abstract

We constructed a type of sensor by depositing a solgel layer within the interior holes of a silica-structured fiber and, subsequently, coating this with an acid-responsive porphyrin. Protonation of the porphyrin by an acidic gas (HCl in this case), is detected by a large change in the visible spectrum. Compared to previous work on a liquid-core sensor in a structured optical fiber, the signal-to-noise ratio of this gas sensor shows a reduced signal strength, but the detection rate is increased about fortyfold.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Canning, J. Sens. 2009, 871580 (2009).
  3. H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, Opt. Lett. 32, 1575 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. F. Tanguay, S. L. Suib, and R. W. Coughlin, J. Catal. 117, 335 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. C. Advincula, F. G. Rahemtulla, R. C. Advincula, E. T. Ada, J. E. Lemonsa, and S. L. Bellisa, Biomaterials 27, 2201 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Donescu, S. Serban, K. Gosa, and C. Petcu, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 3, 10 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Y. Wen and G. L. Wilkes, Chem. Mater. 8, 1667 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

J. Canning, J. Sens. 2009, 871580 (2009).

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

M. C. Advincula, F. G. Rahemtulla, R. C. Advincula, E. T. Ada, J. E. Lemonsa, and S. L. Bellisa, Biomaterials 27, 2201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

D. Donescu, S. Serban, K. Gosa, and C. Petcu, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 3, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Langford, M. J. Latter, and J. Beckman, Inorg. Chem. Commun. 8, 920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. C. Wang and J. Y. Ying, Chem. Mater. 11, 3113 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Y. Wen and G. L. Wilkes, Chem. Mater. 8, 1667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. F. Tanguay, S. L. Suib, and R. W. Coughlin, J. Catal. 117, 335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ada, E. T.

M. C. Advincula, F. G. Rahemtulla, R. C. Advincula, E. T. Ada, J. E. Lemonsa, and S. L. Bellisa, Biomaterials 27, 2201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Advincula, M. C.

M. C. Advincula, F. G. Rahemtulla, R. C. Advincula, E. T. Ada, J. E. Lemonsa, and S. L. Bellisa, Biomaterials 27, 2201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Advincula, R. C.

M. C. Advincula, F. G. Rahemtulla, R. C. Advincula, E. T. Ada, J. E. Lemonsa, and S. L. Bellisa, Biomaterials 27, 2201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Åslund, M. L.

Beckman, J.

S. J. Langford, M. J. Latter, and J. Beckman, Inorg. Chem. Commun. 8, 920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bellisa, S. L.

M. C. Advincula, F. G. Rahemtulla, R. C. Advincula, E. T. Ada, J. E. Lemonsa, and S. L. Bellisa, Biomaterials 27, 2201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A. S.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Boskovic, D.

J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, L. Costanzo, G. Huyang, H. de Bruyn, T. H. Sum, and M. J. Crossley, presented at the Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference 2010 (APOS 2010), Guangzhou, China, June 28–30, 2010.

Broeng, J.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Brueckner, S.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

G. Huyang, J. Canning, M. L. Åslund, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, Opt. Lett. 35, 817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Canning, J. Sens. 2009, 871580 (2009).

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, Opt. Lett. 32, 1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, L. Costanzo, G. Huyang, H. de Bruyn, T. H. Sum, and M. J. Crossley, presented at the Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference 2010 (APOS 2010), Guangzhou, China, June 28–30, 2010.

Costanzo, L.

J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, L. Costanzo, G. Huyang, H. de Bruyn, T. H. Sum, and M. J. Crossley, presented at the Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference 2010 (APOS 2010), Guangzhou, China, June 28–30, 2010.

Coughlin, R. W.

J. F. Tanguay, S. L. Suib, and R. W. Coughlin, J. Catal. 117, 335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Crossley, M. J.

G. Huyang, J. Canning, M. L. Åslund, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, Opt. Lett. 35, 817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, L. Costanzo, G. Huyang, H. de Bruyn, T. H. Sum, and M. J. Crossley, presented at the Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference 2010 (APOS 2010), Guangzhou, China, June 28–30, 2010.

de Bruyn, H.

J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, L. Costanzo, G. Huyang, H. de Bruyn, T. H. Sum, and M. J. Crossley, presented at the Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference 2010 (APOS 2010), Guangzhou, China, June 28–30, 2010.

Donescu, D.

D. Donescu, S. Serban, K. Gosa, and C. Petcu, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 3, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B.

Gosa, K.

D. Donescu, S. Serban, K. Gosa, and C. Petcu, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 3, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Groothoff, N.

Hansom, K.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S.

Huyang, G.

G. Huyang, J. Canning, M. L. Åslund, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, Opt. Lett. 35, 817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, L. Costanzo, G. Huyang, H. de Bruyn, T. H. Sum, and M. J. Crossley, presented at the Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference 2010 (APOS 2010), Guangzhou, China, June 28–30, 2010.

Khoury, T.

G. Huyang, J. Canning, M. L. Åslund, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, Opt. Lett. 35, 817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobelke, J.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laesggard, J.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langford, S. J.

S. J. Langford, M. J. Latter, and J. Beckman, Inorg. Chem. Commun. 8, 920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Latter, M. J.

S. J. Langford, M. J. Latter, and J. Beckman, Inorg. Chem. Commun. 8, 920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, H.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lemonsa, J. E.

M. C. Advincula, F. G. Rahemtulla, R. C. Advincula, E. T. Ada, J. E. Lemonsa, and S. L. Bellisa, Biomaterials 27, 2201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, C.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, Opt. Lett. 32, 1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naqshbandi, M.

J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, L. Costanzo, G. Huyang, H. de Bruyn, T. H. Sum, and M. J. Crossley, presented at the Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference 2010 (APOS 2010), Guangzhou, China, June 28–30, 2010.

Olivero, P.

Padden, W.

J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, L. Costanzo, G. Huyang, H. de Bruyn, T. H. Sum, and M. J. Crossley, presented at the Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference 2010 (APOS 2010), Guangzhou, China, June 28–30, 2010.

Petcu, C.

D. Donescu, S. Serban, K. Gosa, and C. Petcu, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 3, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rahemtulla, F. G.

M. C. Advincula, F. G. Rahemtulla, R. C. Advincula, E. T. Ada, J. E. Lemonsa, and S. L. Bellisa, Biomaterials 27, 2201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reimers, J. R.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuster, K.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwotzer, G.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serban, S.

D. Donescu, S. Serban, K. Gosa, and C. Petcu, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 3, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sintic, M.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sørenson, H. R.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stocks, D.

G. Huyang, J. Canning, M. L. Åslund, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, Opt. Lett. 35, 817 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suib, S. L.

J. F. Tanguay, S. L. Suib, and R. W. Coughlin, J. Catal. 117, 335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sum, T. H.

J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, L. Costanzo, G. Huyang, H. de Bruyn, T. H. Sum, and M. J. Crossley, presented at the Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference 2010 (APOS 2010), Guangzhou, China, June 28–30, 2010.

Tanguay, J. F.

J. F. Tanguay, S. L. Suib, and R. W. Coughlin, J. Catal. 117, 335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang and J. Y. Ying, Chem. Mater. 11, 3113 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J. Y.

J. Y. Wen and G. L. Wilkes, Chem. Mater. 8, 1667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilkes, G. L.

J. Y. Wen and G. L. Wilkes, Chem. Mater. 8, 1667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ying, J. Y.

C. C. Wang and J. Y. Ying, Chem. Mater. 11, 3113 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials (1)

M. C. Advincula, F. G. Rahemtulla, R. C. Advincula, E. T. Ada, J. E. Lemonsa, and S. L. Bellisa, Biomaterials 27, 2201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cent. Eur. J. Chem. (1)

D. Donescu, S. Serban, K. Gosa, and C. Petcu, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 3, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

J. Y. Wen and G. L. Wilkes, Chem. Mater. 8, 1667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wang and J. Y. Ying, Chem. Mater. 11, 3113 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. Commun. (1)

S. J. Langford, M. J. Latter, and J. Beckman, Inorg. Chem. Commun. 8, 920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Catal. (1)

J. F. Tanguay, S. L. Suib, and R. W. Coughlin, J. Catal. 117, 335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Sens. (1)

J. Canning, J. Sens. 2009, 871580 (2009).

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, W. Padden, D. Boskovic, M. Naqshbandi, L. Costanzo, G. Huyang, H. de Bruyn, T. H. Sum, and M. J. Crossley, presented at the Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference 2010 (APOS 2010), Guangzhou, China, June 28–30, 2010.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Structure of the porphyrin ( dt BuPh ) 3 P - PhOH and (b) modeled structure for porphyrin (maroon layer) binding onto solgel (black layer) and their relation to the fiber core. The size and quantity of structured holes and layers are not reflective of the real fiber sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Desktop SEM images of TiO 2 / porphyrin layers within the structured optical fiber: (a) pristine fiber cross section, (b) fiber after TiO 2 solgel layer formation, and (c) fiber after porphyrin deposition over previous TiO 2 layer ( vacuum < 10 7 , V = 10 keV ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) taken during SEM: (a) EDS of the TiO 2 solgel containing structured fiber and (b) EDS of the fiber after porphyrin was deposited over the TiO 2 layer. All gold (Au) present in the sample was due to the coating prior to EDS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of fiber with TiO 2 solgel (black) and porphyrin-containing TiO 2 solgel (pink), porphyrin-containing fiber after HCl acidification for 2 h (green) and one day (blue).

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