Abstract

We numerically investigate the propagation of light through the photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide on low refraction index material for near-field light focusing at the visible wavelength (635nm) by incorporating a center air slot and Fabry–Perot resonator on the scanning tip. Perturbations by water and substrate refraction index changes of the PhC are analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain method to show minimal impact on light confinement and throughput. Such a total dielectric probe tip design has great potential to complement the current widely used metal-coated optical-fiber-based light confinement probe.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. H. Synge, Philosoph. Mag. 6, 356 (1928).
  2. A. Lewis, H. Taha, A. Strinkovski, A. Manevitch, A. Khatchatouriants, R. Dekhter, and E. Ammann, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1378 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J.-I. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photon. 2, 234 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. G. Gucciardi, M. Colocci, M. Labardi, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3408 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton U. Press, 2008).
  10. C. A. Barrios, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, H. Sohlstrm, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, Opt. Express 15, 6846 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Wang, K. Hoshino, and X. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 7729, 77291M (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. V. Kudryashov and H. Weber, Laser Resonators: Novel Design and Development (SPIE1999).
  16. E. Betzig, P. Finn, and J. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. W. Kuchel and G. B. Ralston, Theory and Problems of Biochemistry, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill1988).

2010 (2)

L. Wang, K. Hoshino, and X. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 7729, 77291M (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photon. 2, 234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J.-I. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Lewis, H. Taha, A. Strinkovski, A. Manevitch, A. Khatchatouriants, R. Dekhter, and E. Ammann, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

P. G. Gucciardi, M. Colocci, M. Labardi, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3408 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Betzig, P. Finn, and J. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1928 (1)

E. H. Synge, Philosoph. Mag. 6, 356 (1928).

Allegrini, M.

P. G. Gucciardi, M. Colocci, M. Labardi, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3408 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Ammann, E.

A. Lewis, H. Taha, A. Strinkovski, A. Manevitch, A. Khatchatouriants, R. Dekhter, and E. Ammann, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, P. Finn, and J. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

Colocci, M.

P. G. Gucciardi, M. Colocci, M. Labardi, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3408 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekhter, R.

A. Lewis, H. Taha, A. Strinkovski, A. Manevitch, A. Khatchatouriants, R. Dekhter, and E. Ammann, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finn, P.

E. Betzig, P. Finn, and J. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griol, A.

Gucciardi, P. G.

P. G. Gucciardi, M. Colocci, M. Labardi, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3408 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

Holgado, M.

Hoshino, K.

L. Wang, K. Hoshino, and X. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 7729, 77291M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ikari, T.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J.-I. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J.-I. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J.-I. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton U. Press, 2008).

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton U. Press, 2008).

Khatchatouriants, A.

A. Lewis, H. Taha, A. Strinkovski, A. Manevitch, A. Khatchatouriants, R. Dekhter, and E. Ammann, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-W.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuchel, P. W.

P. W. Kuchel and G. B. Ralston, Theory and Problems of Biochemistry, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill1988).

Kudryashov, A. V.

A. V. Kudryashov and H. Weber, Laser Resonators: Novel Design and Development (SPIE1999).

Labardi, M.

P. G. Gucciardi, M. Colocci, M. Labardi, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3408 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, H. Taha, A. Strinkovski, A. Manevitch, A. Khatchatouriants, R. Dekhter, and E. Ammann, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Manevitch, A.

A. Lewis, H. Taha, A. Strinkovski, A. Manevitch, A. Khatchatouriants, R. Dekhter, and E. Ammann, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton U. Press, 2008).

Minamide, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J.-I. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J.-I. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, I.-Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralston, G. B.

P. W. Kuchel and G. B. Ralston, Theory and Problems of Biochemistry, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill1988).

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, B.

Segerink, F. B.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photon. 2, 234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shikata, J.-I.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J.-I. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sohlstrm, H.

Stefani, F. D.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photon. 2, 234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strinkovski, A.

A. Lewis, H. Taha, A. Strinkovski, A. Manevitch, A. Khatchatouriants, R. Dekhter, and E. Ammann, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synge, E. H.

E. H. Synge, Philosoph. Mag. 6, 356 (1928).

Taha, H.

A. Lewis, H. Taha, A. Strinkovski, A. Manevitch, A. Khatchatouriants, R. Dekhter, and E. Ammann, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taminiau, T. H.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photon. 2, 234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photon. 2, 234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, K. Hoshino, and X. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 7729, 77291M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

A. V. Kudryashov and H. Weber, Laser Resonators: Novel Design and Development (SPIE1999).

Weiner, J.

E. Betzig, P. Finn, and J. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton U. Press, 2008).

Xu, Q.

Yokoyama, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J.-I. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

L. Wang, K. Hoshino, and X. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 7729, 77291M (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J.-I. Shikata, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Gucciardi, M. Colocci, M. Labardi, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3408 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. Finn, and J. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

A. Lewis, H. Taha, A. Strinkovski, A. Manevitch, A. Khatchatouriants, R. Dekhter, and E. Ammann, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photon. 2, 234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, Nature 453, 757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philosoph. Mag. (1)

E. H. Synge, Philosoph. Mag. 6, 356 (1928).

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Wang, K. Hoshino, and X. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 7729, 77291M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton U. Press, 2008).

A. V. Kudryashov and H. Weber, Laser Resonators: Novel Design and Development (SPIE1999).

P. W. Kuchel and G. B. Ralston, Theory and Problems of Biochemistry, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill1988).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design of 2D slot FP PhC nanoresonator based probe on triangular air holes lattice. (a) Probe design illustrated in terms of lattice constant a where D t = 1.48 a . White and gray colors represent air and low refraction index material, respectively. (b) Projected band structure along the x direction of the slot PhC waveguide without nanoresonator formed by air hole radius of 0.3 a (refraction index n = 2.02 ) for TE mode with the super cell lattice shown on the left.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FDTD analysis of light confinement on probe without any perturbations. (a) Surface plot of electric field E y distribution pattern of the slot PhC FP probe with bulk PhC index n = 2.02 . (b) Light intensity distribution at near field of the probe, where x is the near field distance from the tip aperture, ranging from 0 to 30 nm with 2 nm step. (c) Light distribution at near field of the probe without embedding nanoresonators.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Perturbations on light confinement. (a) Illustration of water medium in the near field of the probe tip with 10 nm air gap between tip and water film. (b) FWHM plot of the light center peak and (c) normalized center peak intensity in 5 and 15 nm near-field distance with PhC bulk refraction index varying from 1.97 to 2.07 for both free space case and water film in the near-field case.

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