Abstract

We propose and demonstrate single-chip white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) integrated with semiconductor nanophosphors of colloidal quantum dots for high scotopic/photopic (S/P) ratio. These color conversion WLEDs achieve S/P ratios over 3.00, which exceeds the current limit of 2.50 in common lighting technologies, while sustaining sufficient levels of color rendering index.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2008

U. Banin, Nat. Photon. 2, 209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, Nat. Photon. 2, 247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, E. Sari, J.-H. Baek, I.-H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, New J. Phys. 10, 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Guilhabert, D. Elfström, A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Massoubre, H. X. Zhang, S. R. Jin, A. R. Mackintosh, E. Gu, R. A. Pethrick, and M. D. Dawson, Opt. Express 16, 18933 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, Nano Lett. 7, 2196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, Nat. Photon. 1, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Ohno, Opt. Eng. 44, 111302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Acherman, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, Proc. SPIE 5530, 88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Tsao, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20, 28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Tessler, V. Medvedev, M. Kazes, S. Kan, and U. Banin, Science 295, 1506 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, Science 287, 1011 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. A. Borton and K. A. Daley, IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag. 3, 54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. P. Alivisatos, Science 271, 933 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Norris and M. G. Bawendi, Phys. Rev. B 53, 16338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, and A. W. Myers, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 51 (1996).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, A. W. Myers, and M. A. Bullimore, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 42 (1996).

1994

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, and F. Ashford, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 23, 123 (1994).

1993

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, and F. Ashford, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 22, 150 (1993).

1992

S. M. Berman, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 21, 1 (1992).

1990

S. M. Berman, D. J. Jewett, G. Fein, G. Saika, F. Ashford, Lighting Res. Technol. 22, 37 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Acherman, M.

M. Acherman, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, Science 271, 933 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anikeeva, P. O.

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, Nano Lett. 7, 2196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashford, F.

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, and F. Ashford, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 23, 123 (1994).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, and F. Ashford, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 22, 150 (1993).

S. M. Berman, D. J. Jewett, G. Fein, G. Saika, F. Ashford, Lighting Res. Technol. 22, 37 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-H.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Sari, J.-H. Baek, I.-H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, New J. Phys. 10, 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banin, U.

U. Banin, Nat. Photon. 2, 209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, V. Medvedev, M. Kazes, S. Kan, and U. Banin, Science 295, 1506 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, Nat. Photon. 2, 247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, Nano Lett. 7, 2196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, Science 287, 1011 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Norris and M. G. Bawendi, Phys. Rev. B 53, 16338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benson, B. R.

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, A. W. Myers, and M. A. Bullimore, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 42 (1996).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, and A. W. Myers, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 51 (1996).

Berman, S. M.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, and A. W. Myers, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 51 (1996).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, A. W. Myers, and M. A. Bullimore, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 42 (1996).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, and F. Ashford, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 23, 123 (1994).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, and F. Ashford, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 22, 150 (1993).

S. M. Berman, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 21, 1 (1992).

S. M. Berman, D. J. Jewett, G. Fein, G. Saika, F. Ashford, Lighting Res. Technol. 22, 37 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Borton, J. A.

J. A. Borton and K. A. Daley, IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag. 3, 54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bullimore, M. A.

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, A. W. Myers, and M. A. Bullimore, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 42 (1996).

Bullough, J. D.

J. Van Derlofske, J. D. Bullough, and J. Watkinson, “Spectral effects of LED forward lighting,” Tech Rep. TLA 2005-02 (RPI Lighting Research Center, 2005).

Bulovic, V.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, Nat. Photon. 2, 247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, Nano Lett. 7, 2196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caruge, J. M.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, Nat. Photon. 2, 247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Daley, K. A.

J. A. Borton and K. A. Daley, IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag. 3, 54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

Demir, H. V.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, E. Sari, J.-H. Baek, I.-H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, New J. Phys. 10, 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Derlofske, J. Van

J. Van Derlofske, J. D. Bullough, and J. Watkinson, “Spectral effects of LED forward lighting,” Tech Rep. TLA 2005-02 (RPI Lighting Research Center, 2005).

Elfström, D.

Fein, G.

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, and A. W. Myers, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 51 (1996).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, A. W. Myers, and M. A. Bullimore, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 42 (1996).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, and F. Ashford, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 23, 123 (1994).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, and F. Ashford, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 22, 150 (1993).

S. M. Berman, D. J. Jewett, G. Fein, G. Saika, F. Ashford, Lighting Res. Technol. 22, 37 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gaponenko, S. V.

S. V. Gaponenko, Optical Properties of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Cambridge University, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

Guilhabert, B.

Halpert, J. E.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, Nat. Photon. 2, 247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, Nano Lett. 7, 2196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jewett, D. J.

S. M. Berman, D. J. Jewett, G. Fein, G. Saika, F. Ashford, Lighting Res. Technol. 22, 37 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jewett, D. L.

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, and A. W. Myers, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 51 (1996).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, A. W. Myers, and M. A. Bullimore, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 42 (1996).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, and F. Ashford, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 23, 123 (1994).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, and F. Ashford, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 22, 150 (1993).

Jin, S. R.

Kan, S.

N. Tessler, V. Medvedev, M. Kazes, S. Kan, and U. Banin, Science 295, 1506 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazes, M.

N. Tessler, V. Medvedev, M. Kazes, S. Kan, and U. Banin, Science 295, 1506 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimov, V. I.

M. Acherman, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, Science 287, 1011 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, Semiconductor and Metal Nanocrystals: Synthesis and Electronic and Optical Properties (Marcel Dekker, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

M. Acherman, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kos, S.

M. Acherman, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuehne, A. J. C.

Law, T. M.

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, and A. W. Myers, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 51 (1996).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, A. W. Myers, and M. A. Bullimore, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 42 (1996).

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, Science 287, 1011 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, I.-H.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Sari, J.-H. Baek, I.-H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, New J. Phys. 10, 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. S.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, Nat. Photon. 1, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, Nat. Photon. 1, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mackintosh, A. R.

Martin, M. J.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Massoubre, D.

McBranch, D. W.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, Science 287, 1011 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medvedev, V.

N. Tessler, V. Medvedev, M. Kazes, S. Kan, and U. Banin, Science 295, 1506 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, Science 287, 1011 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, A. W.

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, A. W. Myers, and M. A. Bullimore, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 42 (1996).

S. M. Berman, G. Fein, D. L. Jewett, B. R. Benson, T. M. Law, and A. W. Myers, J. Illumin. Eng. Soc. 25, 51 (1996).

Navvab, M.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nizamoglu, S.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, E. Sari, J.-H. Baek, I.-H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, New J. Phys. 10, 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Norris, D. J.

D. J. Norris and M. G. Bawendi, Phys. Rev. B 53, 16338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, Opt. Eng. 44, 111302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, Proc. SPIE 5530, 88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ozel, T.

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pethrick, R. A.

Petruska, M. A.

M. Acherman, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saika, G.

S. M. Berman, D. J. Jewett, G. Fein, G. Saika, F. Ashford, Lighting Res. Technol. 22, 37 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sari, E.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Sari, J.-H. Baek, I.-H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, New J. Phys. 10, 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, Light Emitting Diode (Cambridge University, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheedy, J.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. L.

M. Acherman, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, Nat. Photon. 1, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, V. Medvedev, M. Kazes, S. Kan, and U. Banin, Science 295, 1506 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tithof, W.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, J. Y.

J. Y. Tsao, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20, 28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, Nat. Photon. 1, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. A.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, Nat. Photon. 1, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watkinson, J.

J. Van Derlofske, J. D. Bullough, and J. Watkinson, “Spectral effects of LED forward lighting,” Tech Rep. TLA 2005-02 (RPI Lighting Research Center, 2005).

Wood, V.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, Nat. Photon. 2, 247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, Nat. Photon. 1, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, Nat. Photon. 1, 717 (2007).
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Zengin, G.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission spectra of our NC integrated white LED achieving a high S/P ratio of 3.05 at a CRI of 71.0 under various current injection levels at room temperature, along with its ( x , y ) tristimulus coordinates on CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram and a photograph presented in the insets.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

S/P ratio versus CRI given for our NC-based single-chip white LED, also compared with common lighting technologies [2] (including, LPS, low pressure sodium; HPS, high pressure sodium; WW, warm white fluorescent; TP70, triphosphor fluorescent [ 70 < CRI < 80 ]; TP80, triphosphor fluorescent [ 80 < C RI < 90 ]; INCAND, incandescent light bulb; MET HAL, metal halide [Thal/Dys/Hol] [10], and also a typical yellow phosphor based WLED [9]).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lines of constant CCT on the ( x , y ) chromaticity diagram with the emission spectra of Samples A, B, and C. The red star is the ( x , y ) tristimulus coordinates of the white LED shown in Fig. 1.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Amounts of Integrated NCs Emitting at Different Colors (given in nmol) for Samples A, B, and C

Tables Icon

Table 2 Photometric Properties of Samples A, B, and C

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