Abstract

In this Letter, the optical properties of randomly positioned silicon nanowire arrays are studied. The result shows that position randomization with a filling ratio larger than 36% renders better absorptance over a broadband ranging from 300 to 1130nm compared to regular structures. The ultimate efficiency of a 48% filling ratio position randomized nanowire structure is 13.4% higher compared to the optimized regularly arranged nanowire structure with the same thickness. The absorptance enhancement of random structures is attributed to lowered reflectance, more supported resonant modes, and broadening of existing resonance.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (6)

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Garnett and P. D. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, H. Yu, J. Li, X. Sun, X. Wang, and H. Zheng, Opt. Lett. 35, 40 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Han and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 1012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu and A. Lal, Nano Lett. 10, 4651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bao and X. Ruan, Opt. Lett. 35, 3378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, and C. Paulson, Nano Lett. 9, 3494 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. X. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, Opt. Express 17, 19371 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivakov, G. Andra, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, Nano Lett. 9, 1549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 9224(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, Nano Lett. 8, 2638 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, Opt. Express 16, 21793 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. A 78, 15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

N. S. Lewis, Science 315, 798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 7, 3249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 233117(2007).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510(1961).
[CrossRef]

Algra, R. E.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, Nano Lett. 8, 2638 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andra, G.

V. Sivakov, G. Andra, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, Nano Lett. 9, 1549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakkers, E.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, Nano Lett. 8, 2638 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balch, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 233117(2007).
[CrossRef]

Bao, H.

Berger, A.

V. Sivakov, G. Andra, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, Nano Lett. 9, 1549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

Chen, G.

S. E. Han and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 1012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 7, 3249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christiansen, S. H.

V. Sivakov, G. Andra, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, Nano Lett. 9, 1549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. A 78, 15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

Q. G. Du, C. H. Kam, H. V. Demir, H. Y. Yu, and X. W. Sun are preparing a manuscript to be called “Enhanced optical absorption in silicon nano-cone-hole array for photovoltaic applications.”

Du, Q. G.

Q. G. Du, C. H. Kam, H. V. Demir, H. Y. Yu, and X. W. Sun are preparing a manuscript to be called “Enhanced optical absorption in silicon nano-cone-hole array for photovoltaic applications.”

Falk, F.

V. Sivakov, G. Andra, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, Nano Lett. 9, 1549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filler, M. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fronheiser, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 233117(2007).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett and P. D. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garnett, E. C.

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 9224(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gawlik, A.

V. Sivakov, G. Andra, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, Nano Lett. 9, 1549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S. E.

S. E. Han and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 1012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

L. Hu and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 7, 3249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. A 78, 15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kam, C. H.

Q. G. Du, C. H. Kam, H. V. Demir, H. Y. Yu, and X. W. Sun are preparing a manuscript to be called “Enhanced optical absorption in silicon nano-cone-hole array for photovoltaic applications.”

Kayes, B. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempa, T. J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korevaar, B. A.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 233117(2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, Nano Lett. 8, 2638 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lal, A.

Y. Lu and A. Lal, Nano Lett. 10, 4651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Lewis, Science 315, 798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Li, J. S.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. X.

Lo, P. G. Q.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu and A. Lal, Nano Lett. 10, 4651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muskens, O. L.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, Nano Lett. 8, 2638 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1998), Vol. 1.

Paulson, C.

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, and C. Paulson, Nano Lett. 9, 3494 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Plentz, J.

V. Sivakov, G. Andra, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, Nano Lett. 9, 1549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

Povinelli, M. L.

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510(1961).
[CrossRef]

Rand, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 233117(2007).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, J. G.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, Nano Lett. 8, 2638 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, X.

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510(1961).
[CrossRef]

Sivakov, V.

V. Sivakov, G. Andra, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, Nano Lett. 9, 1549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Street, R. A.

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, and C. Paulson, Nano Lett. 9, 3494 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sulima, O.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 233117(2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Sun, X. W.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. G. Du, C. H. Kam, H. V. Demir, H. Y. Yu, and X. W. Sun are preparing a manuscript to be called “Enhanced optical absorption in silicon nano-cone-hole array for photovoltaic applications.”

Tian, B.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsakalakos, L.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 233117(2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Wang, X.

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. M.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, and C. Paulson, Nano Lett. 9, 3494 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 9224(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. D.

E. Garnett and P. D. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

Yu, H. Y.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. G. Du, C. H. Kam, H. V. Demir, H. Y. Yu, and X. W. Sun are preparing a manuscript to be called “Enhanced optical absorption in silicon nano-cone-hole array for photovoltaic applications.”

Yu, N.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

Zheng, X.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 233117(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 9224(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510(1961).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (8)

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 8, 710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, Nano Lett. 8, 2638 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 7, 3249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sivakov, G. Andra, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, Nano Lett. 9, 1549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett and P. D. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Han and G. Chen, Nano Lett. 10, 1012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu and A. Lal, Nano Lett. 10, 4651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, and C. Paulson, Nano Lett. 9, 3494 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 9, 368 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. A 78, 15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

N. S. Lewis, Science 315, 798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Q. G. Du, C. H. Kam, H. V. Demir, H. Y. Yu, and X. W. Sun are preparing a manuscript to be called “Enhanced optical absorption in silicon nano-cone-hole array for photovoltaic applications.”

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1998), Vol. 1.

“Air Mass 1.5 Spectra, American Society for Testing and Materials,” retrieved http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of silicon NW arrays with a (a) regularly arranged square lattice, (b) random NW contained in regular unit cell used in [20], (c) 48% position random, and (d) 30% position random structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorptance of four different 48% position random NW arrays. (b) Absorptance, (c) reflectance, and (d) transmittance of regular, random NW contained in regular unit cell, 48% position random, and 30% position random silicon NW arrays, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

E-field distributions in a regularly arranged NW array at (a)  λ = 899.1 nm and (b)  λ = 916.0 nm . E-field distributions in a 48% position random NW array at (c)  λ = 899.1 nm and (d)  λ = 916.0 nm .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Ultimate Efficiency of Various NW Arrays

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