Abstract

This Letter reports a convenient method of fabricating a polymer-based microlaser array. Laterally aligned plastic micropillars equipped with an optical resonator were fabricated by using a lithographic technique with an organic-dye-doped photopolymer, which operated as a laser element with a vertical cavity. Under optical pumping, very fine emission spectra showing a Fabry–Perot-type lasing oscillation were observed. Using this technique, integrated laser cavities with desired operation wavebands can be produced easily.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. H. Kim, K. S. Shin, J. Y. Kang, E. C. Yang, K. K. Paek, D. S. Seo, and B. K. Ju, J. Microelectromechanical Systems 15, 1152 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Brackmann, Lambdachrome Laser Dyes (Lambda, 1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (5)

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke and E. M. Terentjev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, F. S. Tsai, K. Yamashita, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, N. Takeuchi, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Opt. Lett. 35, 2451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zhang, S. Talla, Z. Gong, S. Karandikar, R. Giorno, and L. Que, Opt. Express 18, 18394 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Arimatsu, N. Takeuchi, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakata and H. Takeuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113310(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. B. Christiansen, M. Schøler, and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 15, 3931 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 463, 131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. H. Kim, K. S. Shin, J. Y. Kang, E. C. Yang, K. K. Paek, D. S. Seo, and B. K. Ju, J. Microelectromechanical Systems 15, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 4745 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arimatsu, A.

K. Yamashita, A. Arimatsu, N. Takeuchi, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arimatsu, M.

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brackmann, U.

U. Brackmann, Lambdachrome Laser Dyes (Lambda, 1994).

Bulovic, V.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S. H.

S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, F. S. Tsai, K. Yamashita, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, M. B.

Costela, A.

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 4745 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukuzawa, E.

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

García-Moreno, I.

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 4745 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ge, C.

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giorno, R.

Gong, Z.

Ito, M.

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ju, B. K.

Y. H. Kim, K. S. Shin, J. Y. Kang, E. C. Yang, K. K. Paek, D. S. Seo, and B. K. Ju, J. Microelectromechanical Systems 15, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. Y.

Y. H. Kim, K. S. Shin, J. Y. Kang, E. C. Yang, K. K. Paek, D. S. Seo, and B. K. Ju, J. Microelectromechanical Systems 15, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karandikar, S.

Kim, Y. H.

Y. H. Kim, K. S. Shin, J. Y. Kang, E. C. Yang, K. K. Paek, D. S. Seo, and B. K. Ju, J. Microelectromechanical Systems 15, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kitanobou, A.

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

D. Schneider, U. Lemmer, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, in Organic Light Emitting Devices, K.Müllen and U.Scherf, eds. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 369–395.
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

Lemmer, U.

D. Schneider, U. Lemmer, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, in Organic Light Emitting Devices, K.Müllen and U.Scherf, eds. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 369–395.
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, F. S. Tsai, K. Yamashita, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, M.

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 463, 131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, M.

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 463, 131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oe, K.

K. Yamashita, N. Takeuchi, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Opt. Lett. 35, 2451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Arimatsu, N. Takeuchi, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 463, 131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oki, Y.

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 463, 131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paek, K. K.

Y. H. Kim, K. S. Shin, J. Y. Kang, E. C. Yang, K. K. Paek, D. S. Seo, and B. K. Ju, J. Microelectromechanical Systems 15, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, W.

S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, F. S. Tsai, K. Yamashita, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Que, L.

Riedl, T.

D. Schneider, U. Lemmer, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, in Organic Light Emitting Devices, K.Müllen and U.Scherf, eds. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 369–395.
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakata, H.

H. Sakata and H. Takeuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113310(2008).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sastre, R.

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 4745 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke and E. M. Terentjev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

D. Schneider, U. Lemmer, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, in Organic Light Emitting Devices, K.Müllen and U.Scherf, eds. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 369–395.
[CrossRef]

Schøler, M.

Seo, D. S.

Y. H. Kim, K. S. Shin, J. Y. Kang, E. C. Yang, K. K. Paek, D. S. Seo, and B. K. Ju, J. Microelectromechanical Systems 15, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shin, K. S.

Y. H. Kim, K. S. Shin, J. Y. Kang, E. C. Yang, K. K. Paek, D. S. Seo, and B. K. Ju, J. Microelectromechanical Systems 15, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Swager, T. M.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takayama, M.

K. Yamashita, A. Arimatsu, N. Takeuchi, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

H. Sakata and H. Takeuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113310(2008).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, N.

K. Yamashita, N. Takeuchi, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Opt. Lett. 35, 2451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamashita, A. Arimatsu, N. Takeuchi, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Talla, S.

Terentjev, E. M.

J. Schmidtke and E. M. Terentjev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F. S.

S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, F. S. Tsai, K. Yamashita, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

K. Yamashita, N. Takeuchi, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Opt. Lett. 35, 2451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, F. S. Tsai, K. Yamashita, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Arimatsu, N. Takeuchi, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 463, 131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yanagi, H.

K. Yamashita, N. Takeuchi, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Opt. Lett. 35, 2451 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Arimatsu, N. Takeuchi, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, E. C.

Y. H. Kim, K. S. Shin, J. Y. Kang, E. C. Yang, K. K. Paek, D. S. Seo, and B. K. Ju, J. Microelectromechanical Systems 15, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

Zhang, W.

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke and E. M. Terentjev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, F. S. Tsai, K. Yamashita, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, M. Arimatsu, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Arimatsu, N. Takeuchi, M. Takayama, K. Oe, and H. Yanagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, A. Kitanobou, M. Ito, E. Fukuzawa, and K. Oe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakata and H. Takeuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113310(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromechanical Systems (1)

Y. H. Kim, K. S. Shin, J. Y. Kang, E. C. Yang, K. K. Paek, D. S. Seo, and B. K. Ju, J. Microelectromechanical Systems 15, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

Y. Oki, Y. Ogawa, K. Yamashita, M. Miyazaki, and M. Maeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 463, 131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 4745 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Schneider, U. Lemmer, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, in Organic Light Emitting Devices, K.Müllen and U.Scherf, eds. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 369–395.
[CrossRef]

U. Brackmann, Lambdachrome Laser Dyes (Lambda, 1994).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of plastic DBR laser array. Plastic micropillars were fabricated by the laser light exposure of an organic-dye-doped photopolymer between a pair of DTF mirrors. PDMS sheets with the thickness L were used as the spacer. (b) Microscopic image of array of R-101-doped micropillars with L of 140 μm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optically pumped emission spectra from R-101-doped plastic DBR lasers. The pumping wavelength was 355 nm . The spectral resolution was 0.2 nm . The emission from a single microlaser was detected for each measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output intensities of R-101-doped plastic DBR lasers under various pumping densities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Image of plastic DBR laser array, in which R-101- and R-B-doped micropillars were integrated. The device was under optical pumping of 80 μJ / cm 2 . (b) Image of device under optical pumping of 300 μJ / cm 2 . All the microlasers showed the lasing action. (c) Lasing spectrum of device. The pumping density was 300 μJ / cm 2 .

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