Abstract

Heterodyne near-field scanning optical microscopy (H-NSOM) has proven useful as a tool for characterization of both amplitude and phase of on-chip photonic devices in air, but it has previously been unable to characterize devices with a dielectric overcladding, which is commonly used in practice for such devices. Here we demonstrate H-NSOM of a silicon waveguide with a liquid cladding emulating the solid dielectric. This technique allows characterization of practical devices with realistic refractive index profiles. Fourier analysis is used to estimate the effective refractive index of the mode from the measured data, showing an index shift of 0.08 from air to water cladding, which is seen to correspond well to simulations.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

W. Ji, D. Kim, H. J. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, S. Park, E. Lee, and S. G. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 846(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. I. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. G. Figdor, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

C. E. Talley, G. A. Cooksey, and R. C. Dunn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, K. Homma, K. Nakajima, T. Ataka, S. Ohta, A. Kusumi, and M. Fujihira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, Ultramicroscopy 13, 227 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Abashin, M.

Almeida, V. R.

Ataka, T.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, K. Homma, K. Nakajima, T. Ataka, S. Ohta, A. Kusumi, and M. Fujihira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Balistreri, M. L. M.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beom-Hoan, O.

W. Ji, D. Kim, H. J. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, S. Park, E. Lee, and S. G. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 846(2005).
[CrossRef]

Blackledge, J. M.

J. M. Blackledge, Digital Image Processing: Mathematical and Computational Methods (Woodhead, 2005).

Cambi, A.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. I. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. G. Figdor, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiba, N.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, K. Homma, K. Nakajima, T. Ataka, S. Ohta, A. Kusumi, and M. Fujihira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cooksey, G. A.

C. E. Talley, G. A. Cooksey, and R. C. Dunn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dandliker, R.

de Bakker, B. I.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. I. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. G. Figdor, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, R. C.

C. E. Talley, G. A. Cooksey, and R. C. Dunn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Figdor, C. G.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. I. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. G. Figdor, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujihira, M.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, K. Homma, K. Nakajima, T. Ataka, S. Ohta, A. Kusumi, and M. Fujihira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Parajo, M. F.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. I. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. G. Figdor, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harootunian, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, Ultramicroscopy 13, 227 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Homma, K.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, K. Homma, K. Nakajima, T. Ataka, S. Ohta, A. Kusumi, and M. Fujihira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, K.

Isaacson, M.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, Ultramicroscopy 13, 227 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

W. Ji, D. Kim, H. J. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, S. Park, E. Lee, and S. G. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 846(2005).
[CrossRef]

Joosten, B.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. I. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. G. Figdor, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

W. Ji, D. Kim, H. J. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, S. Park, E. Lee, and S. G. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 846(2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

W. Ji, D. Kim, H. J. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, S. Park, E. Lee, and S. G. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 846(2005).
[CrossRef]

Koopman, M.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. I. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. G. Figdor, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korterik, J. P.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusumi, A.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, K. Homma, K. Nakajima, T. Ataka, S. Ohta, A. Kusumi, and M. Fujihira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E.

W. Ji, D. Kim, H. J. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, S. Park, E. Lee, and S. G. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 846(2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. G.

W. Ji, D. Kim, H. J. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, S. Park, E. Lee, and S. G. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 846(2005).
[CrossRef]

Levy, U.

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, Ultramicroscopy 13, 227 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Märki, I.

Muramatsu, H.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, K. Homma, K. Nakajima, T. Ataka, S. Ohta, A. Kusumi, and M. Fujihira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Muray, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, Ultramicroscopy 13, 227 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, W.

Nakajima, K.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, K. Homma, K. Nakajima, T. Ataka, S. Ohta, A. Kusumi, and M. Fujihira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nesci, A.

Ohta, S.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, K. Homma, K. Nakajima, T. Ataka, S. Ohta, A. Kusumi, and M. Fujihira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Park, S.

W. Ji, D. Kim, H. J. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, S. Park, E. Lee, and S. G. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 846(2005).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Saperstein, R.

Talley, C. E.

C. E. Talley, G. A. Cooksey, and R. C. Dunn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tortora, P.

Vaccaro, L.

van Hulst, N. F.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. I. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. G. Figdor, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, K. Homma, K. Nakajima, T. Ataka, S. Ohta, A. Kusumi, and M. Fujihira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Talley, G. A. Cooksey, and R. C. Dunn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

FEBS Lett. (1)

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. I. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. G. Figdor, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Ji, D. Kim, H. J. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, S. Park, E. Lee, and S. G. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 846(2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Nesci and Y. Fainman, Proc. SPIE 5181, 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, Ultramicroscopy 13, 227 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. M. Blackledge, Digital Image Processing: Mathematical and Computational Methods (Woodhead, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experiment. An aperture NSOM probe scans a silicon waveguide, which is bonded to a polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber. The entire apparatus is submerged in water. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the fiber bonded to the chip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Topography, (b) amplitude A, (c) phase ϕ, and (d) electric field A sin ϕ maps for water overcladding.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Estimated power spectral density of the optical field for (a) air and (b) water, showing a single mode in each case; (c) y-integrated data from (a) and (b), demonstrating an effective index shift of 0.08 from air to water cladding.

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