Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate stable and user-adjustable single-photon interference in a 1km long fiber-optic Mach–Zehnder interferometer, using an active phase control system with the feedback provided by a classical laser. We are able to continuously tune the single-photon phase difference between the interferometer arms using a phase modulator, which is synchronized with the gate window of the single-photon detectors. The phase control system employs a piezoelectric fiber stretcher to stabilize the phase drift in the interferometer. A single-photon net visibility of 0.97 is obtained, yielding future possibilities for experimental realizations of quantum repeaters in optical fibers and violation of Bell’s inequalities using genuine energy-time entanglement.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2011

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. Lima, G. Vallone, A. Chiuri, A. Cabello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. A 81, 040101(R) (2010).

G. B. Xavier and J. P. von der Weid, Electron. Lett. 46, 1071 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T.-G. Noh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 230501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Cabello, A. Rossi, G. Vallone, F. De Martini, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-B. Cho and T.-G. Noh, Opt. Express 17, 19027 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. Gisin and R. Thew, Nat. Photon. 1, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1998

G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, C. Simon, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th (expanded) ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Cabello, A.

G. Lima, G. Vallone, A. Chiuri, A. Cabello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. A 81, 040101(R) (2010).

A. Cabello, A. Rossi, G. Vallone, F. De Martini, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiuri, A.

G. Lima, G. Vallone, A. Chiuri, A. Cabello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. A 81, 040101(R) (2010).

Cho, S.-B.

De Martini, F.

A. Cabello, A. Rossi, G. Vallone, F. De Martini, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Riedmatten, H.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delage, L.

Gisin, N.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin and R. Thew, Nat. Photon. 1, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jennewein, T.

G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, C. Simon, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lima, G.

G. Lima, G. Vallone, A. Chiuri, A. Cabello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. A 81, 040101(R) (2010).

Mataloni, P.

G. Lima, G. Vallone, A. Chiuri, A. Cabello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. A 81, 040101(R) (2010).

A. Cabello, A. Rossi, G. Vallone, F. De Martini, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minár, J.

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noh, T.-G.

Reynaud, F.

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, A.

A. Cabello, A. Rossi, G. Vallone, F. De Martini, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sangouard, N.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simon, C.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, C. Simon, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R.

N. Gisin and R. Thew, Nat. Photon. 1, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vallone, G.

G. Lima, G. Vallone, A. Chiuri, A. Cabello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. A 81, 040101(R) (2010).

A. Cabello, A. Rossi, G. Vallone, F. De Martini, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von der Weid, J. P.

G. B. Xavier and J. P. von der Weid, Electron. Lett. 46, 1071 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, C. Simon, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, C. Simon, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th (expanded) ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Xavier, G. B.

G. B. Xavier and J. P. von der Weid, Electron. Lett. 46, 1071 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, C. Simon, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. B. Xavier and J. P. von der Weid, Electron. Lett. 46, 1071 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

N. Gisin and R. Thew, Nat. Photon. 1, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Lima, G. Vallone, A. Chiuri, A. Cabello, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. A 81, 040101(R) (2010).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, C. Simon, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T.-G. Noh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 230501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Cabello, A. Rossi, G. Vallone, F. De Martini, and P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th (expanded) ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Solid lines represent optical fibers and connections, dashed black lines stand for electrical cables, and red dashed line depicts free space. ATT, variable optical attenuator; D 1 and D 2 , single-photon counting modules; DWDM, dense wavelength division multiplexer; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; FPGA, field programmable gate array; FS, piezoelectric fiber stretcher; PD, photodetector; PM, electro-optic phase modulator. Inset shows the counts/ second at D 1 when changing the relative delay from the pulse generator to the single-photon detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detected counts per second in both D 1 and D 2 with the phase control active and the system aligned. At around 250 s the phase control is turned off.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photon detections at D 1 and D 2 as a function of the phase modulator driving voltage. Solid curves demonstrate the theoretical fit to the data. Error bars represent the statistical fluctuations of the detection process.

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