Abstract

In this Letter, we present the design of a horn nanoantenna working at near-IR frequencies. The proposed layout consists of an Ag–air–Ag nanotransmission line terminated in a tapered horn. The antenna design is validated through proper full-wave numerical simulations, taking into account actual dispersion and losses of the involved materials. The numerical results show that the designed nanohorn is matched over a broad range of frequencies (more than 50% of fractional bandwidth) and radiates efficiently in the same frequency band (the realized gain is greater than 10dBi). Such promising results may find application in different technical and scientific fields, ranging from smart lighting to optical wireless communications.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Alù and N. Engheta, Nat. Photon. 2, 307 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 78, 195111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Guo, T. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Opt. Express 16, 7756 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, T. Meyrath, M. He, H. Giessen, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 17, 9971(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. J. Burke, S. Li, and Z. Yu, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 5, 314 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. W. Hanson, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 54, 3677(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Exarri, A. J. Huber, K. Croizer, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photon. 3, 287(2009).
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  19. P. Chen and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. B 82, 235405 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 75, 024304 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Alù and N. Engheta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 571 (2006).
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  23. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Computer Simulation Technology, CST Studio Suite 2009, http://www.cst.com.
  25. N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

P. Chen and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. B 82, 235405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, T. Meyrath, M. He, H. Giessen, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 17, 9971(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Exarri, A. J. Huber, K. Croizer, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photon. 3, 287(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Nat. Photon. 2, 307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 78, 195111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, T. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Opt. Express 16, 7756 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 75, 024304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 2150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Burke, S. Li, and Z. Yu, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 5, 314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Hanson, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 54, 3677(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

J. Alda, J. M. Rico-Garcia, J. M. Lopez, and G. Boreman, Nanotechnology 16, S230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420(2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Exarri, A. J. Huber, K. Croizer, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photon. 3, 287(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420(2005).
[CrossRef]

Alda, J.

J. Alda, J. M. Rico-Garcia, J. M. Lopez, and G. Boreman, Nanotechnology 16, S230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonzalez and J. Alda, “Optical antennas as nano-probes in photonic crystals and dielectric waveguide structures,” presented at the 4th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Barcelona, Spain, April 12–16, 2010).

Alù, A.

P. Chen and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. B 82, 235405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Nat. Photon. 2, 307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 78, 195111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 75, 024304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonakdar, A.

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G.

J. Alda, J. M. Rico-Garcia, J. M. Lopez, and G. Boreman, Nanotechnology 16, S230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420(2005).
[CrossRef]

Burke, P. J.

P. J. Burke, S. Li, and Z. Yu, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 5, 314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

P. Chen and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. B 82, 235405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

Croizer, K.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Exarri, A. J. Huber, K. Croizer, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photon. 3, 287(2009).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dey, D.

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dregely, D.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, and H. Giessen, in 2010 Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.

Eisler, H. J.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 78, 195111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Nat. Photon. 2, 307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 75, 024304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

García de Abajo, F. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420(2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Exarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Exarri, A. J. Huber, K. Croizer, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photon. 3, 287(2009).
[CrossRef]

Gelfand, R.

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Gonzalez, F.

F. Gonzalez and J. Alda, “Optical antennas as nano-probes in photonic crystals and dielectric waveguide structures,” presented at the 4th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Barcelona, Spain, April 12–16, 2010).

Guo, H.

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 54, 3677(2006).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

Hecht, B.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Exarri, A. J. Huber, K. Croizer, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photon. 3, 287(2009).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Exarri, A. J. Huber, K. Croizer, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photon. 3, 287(2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, B. K.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420(2005).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kohoutek, J.

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kort, E. A.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Li, S.

P. J. Burke, S. Li, and Z. Yu, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 5, 314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

Lopez, J. M.

J. Alda, J. M. Rico-Garcia, J. M. Lopez, and G. Boreman, Nanotechnology 16, S230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mallouk, T.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420(2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menzel, C.

Meyrath, T.

Mirkin, C. A.

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 2150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohseni, H.

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Muhlschlegel, P.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S.

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 2150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, E. K.

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 2150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quate, C. F.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richter, L. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420(2005).
[CrossRef]

Rico-Garcia, J. M.

J. Alda, J. M. Rico-Garcia, J. M. Lopez, and G. Boreman, Nanotechnology 16, S230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

Salandrino, A.

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 2150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Exarri, A. J. Huber, K. Croizer, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photon. 3, 287(2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

Shuford, K. L.

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 2150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taubert, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, and H. Giessen, in 2010 Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.

Yu, Z.

P. J. Burke, S. Li, and Z. Yu, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 5, 314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

Zhang, W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. (1)

G. W. Hanson, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 54, 3677(2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

P. J. Burke, S. Li, and Z. Yu, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 5, 314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 2150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. Alda, J. M. Rico-Garcia, J. M. Lopez, and G. Boreman, Nanotechnology 16, S230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (2)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Nat. Photon. 2, 307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Exarri, A. J. Huber, K. Croizer, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photon. 3, 287(2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 78, 195111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420(2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Chen and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. B 82, 235405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 75, 024304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, and H. Giessen, in 2010 Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.

F. Gonzalez and J. Alda, “Optical antennas as nano-probes in photonic crystals and dielectric waveguide structures,” presented at the 4th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Barcelona, Spain, April 12–16, 2010).

Computer Simulation Technology, CST Studio Suite 2009, http://www.cst.com.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of a symmetric nanotransmission line, infinitely extended in the x and y directions, made of a dielectric material slab sandwiched by two plasmonic layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Horn nanoantenna geometry: wg = 6 μm , horn = 2 μm , h = 2 μm , w wg = 3.25 μm , d air = 300 nm , d Ag = 50 nm , D = 100 nm , p = 375 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Map of the electric field amplitude distribution at the design wavelength of 1.5 μm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Amplitude of the reflection coefficient (i.e., scattering parameter S 11 ) at the input port of the horn nanoantenna reported in Fig. 3 as a function of frequency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3D gain radiation pattern of the horn nanoantenna reported in Fig. 3 at (a) 160, (b) 180, (c) 200, (d) 220, and (e)  240 THz .

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