Abstract

We characterize theoretically and experimentally the degradation of polarization entanglement in a fiber-optic entanglement distribution system where one of the optical fibers is exposed to the effects of polarization mode dispersion (PMD). We show gradual reduction of entanglement with increasing PMD and find that the highest PMD tolerance is achieved when the bandwidth of the pump used to generate the entangled photons in a χ(3) process is approximately half the bandwidth of the quantum channels.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Eckert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Gisin and R. Thew, Nat. Photon. 1, 165 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Poppe, H. Hübel, T. Lederer, A. Fedrizzi, M. R. Vanner, and A. Zeilinger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Tu 4.1.3.
  5. H. Hübel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorunser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, Opt. Express 15, 7853 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC, 2006), paper PDP35.
  7. M. Brodsky, C. Antonelli, and Mark Shtaif, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), paper Th9F2.
  8. T. Yu and J. H. Eberly, Science 323, 598 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. http://www.nucrypt.net/.
  10. S. X. Wang, G. S. Kanter, and P. Kumar, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC, 2009), paper PDPA3.
  11. S. X. Wang and G. S. Kanter, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1733 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).
  13. W. K. Wootters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Horodecki, I. Horodecki, and M. Horodecki, Phys. Lett. A 200, 340 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

T. Yu and J. H. Eberly, Science 323, 598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. X. Wang and G. S. Kanter, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

N. Gisin and R. Thew, Nat. Photon. 1, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hübel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorunser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, Opt. Express 15, 7853 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. K. Wootters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. Horodecki, I. Horodecki, and M. Horodecki, Phys. Lett. A 200, 340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Eckert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Acin, A.

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altepeter, J. B.

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).

Antonelli, C.

M. Brodsky, C. Antonelli, and Mark Shtaif, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), paper Th9F2.

Blauensteiner, B.

Brodsky, M.

M. Brodsky, C. Antonelli, and Mark Shtaif, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), paper Th9F2.

Brunner, N.

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC, 2006), paper PDP35.

Clauser, J. F.

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

T. Yu and J. H. Eberly, Science 323, 598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckert, A.

A. Eckert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fedrizzi, A.

A. Poppe, H. Hübel, T. Lederer, A. Fedrizzi, M. R. Vanner, and A. Zeilinger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Tu 4.1.3.

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin and R. Thew, Nat. Photon. 1, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holt, R. A.

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Horne, M. A.

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Horodecki, I.

R. Horodecki, I. Horodecki, and M. Horodecki, Phys. Lett. A 200, 340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Horodecki, M.

R. Horodecki, I. Horodecki, and M. Horodecki, Phys. Lett. A 200, 340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Horodecki, R.

R. Horodecki, I. Horodecki, and M. Horodecki, Phys. Lett. A 200, 340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hübel, H.

H. Hübel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorunser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, Opt. Express 15, 7853 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Poppe, H. Hübel, T. Lederer, A. Fedrizzi, M. R. Vanner, and A. Zeilinger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Tu 4.1.3.

Jeffrey, E. R.

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).

Kanter, G. S.

S. X. Wang and G. S. Kanter, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Wang, G. S. Kanter, and P. Kumar, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC, 2009), paper PDPA3.

Kumar, P.

S. X. Wang, G. S. Kanter, and P. Kumar, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC, 2009), paper PDPA3.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC, 2006), paper PDP35.

Kwiat, P. G.

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).

Lederer, T.

H. Hübel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorunser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, Opt. Express 15, 7853 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Poppe, H. Hübel, T. Lederer, A. Fedrizzi, M. R. Vanner, and A. Zeilinger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Tu 4.1.3.

Lee, K. F.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC, 2006), paper PDP35.

Liang, C.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC, 2006), paper PDP35.

Lorunser, T.

Massar, S.

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pironio, S.

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

H. Hübel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorunser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, Opt. Express 15, 7853 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Poppe, H. Hübel, T. Lederer, A. Fedrizzi, M. R. Vanner, and A. Zeilinger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Tu 4.1.3.

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scarani, V.

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimony, A.

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Shtaif, Mark

M. Brodsky, C. Antonelli, and Mark Shtaif, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), paper Th9F2.

Thew, R.

N. Gisin and R. Thew, Nat. Photon. 1, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vanner, M. R.

H. Hübel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorunser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, Opt. Express 15, 7853 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Poppe, H. Hübel, T. Lederer, A. Fedrizzi, M. R. Vanner, and A. Zeilinger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Tu 4.1.3.

Wang, S. X.

S. X. Wang and G. S. Kanter, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Wang, G. S. Kanter, and P. Kumar, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC, 2009), paper PDPA3.

Wootters, W. K.

W. K. Wootters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

T. Yu and J. H. Eberly, Science 323, 598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

H. Hübel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorunser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, Opt. Express 15, 7853 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Poppe, H. Hübel, T. Lederer, A. Fedrizzi, M. R. Vanner, and A. Zeilinger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Tu 4.1.3.

Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 105 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. X. Wang and G. S. Kanter, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

N. Gisin and R. Thew, Nat. Photon. 1, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

R. Horodecki, I. Horodecki, and M. Horodecki, Phys. Lett. A 200, 340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. Acin, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eckert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Wootters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. Yu and J. H. Eberly, Science 323, 598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

http://www.nucrypt.net/.

S. X. Wang, G. S. Kanter, and P. Kumar, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC, 2009), paper PDPA3.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC, 2006), paper PDP35.

M. Brodsky, C. Antonelli, and Mark Shtaif, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), paper Th9F2.

A. Poppe, H. Hübel, T. Lederer, A. Fedrizzi, M. R. Vanner, and A. Zeilinger, in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Tu 4.1.3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup schematic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left, concurrence versus DGD. Right, Bell S parameter versus concurrence C. Squares correspond to B A = B B = B ch = 130 GHz and B p = 120 GHz ; circles correspond to B A = B B = B ch = 70 GHz and B p = 75 GHz .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized DGD value τ dec versus the ratio B p / B ch , for B A = B B = B ch . The different curves cor respond to super-Gaussian filters of various orders n. The symbols, to be interpreted as in Fig. 2, show available experimental points.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| ψ p = ( | h ̲ , h ̲ + exp ( i α ) | v ̲ , v ̲ ) / 2 ,
| g ( t A , t B ) = d t h A * ( t t A ) h B * ( t t B ) × d t p E p ( t t p ) E p ( t p ) | t A , t B ,
| ψ out = 1 2 [ | s ̲ , b ̲ | g ( t A τ / 2 , t B ) + | s ̲ , b ̲ | g ( t A + τ / 2 , t B ) ] .
R ( τ ) = κ d ω A d ω B | H A ( ω A ) | 2 | H B ( ω B ) | 2 × | E ˜ p ( ω A + ω B 2 ) | 4 e i τ ω A ,

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