Abstract

Photon-counting imaging is integrated with optical encryption for information authentication. An image is double-random-phase encrypted, and a photon-limited encrypted image is obtained. The photon-counting encrypted image is generated with few photons and appears sparse; however, we show that it has sufficient information for decryption and authentication. The decrypted image cannot be easily visualized so that an additional layer of information protection is achieved. The authentication is carried out by recognition algorithms. This approach may make the verification process more robust against attacks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating photon-counting imaging and encryption for authentication.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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2009 (2)

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1128 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahalanobis, IEEE Trans. AES 45, 1167 (2009).

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

T. Nomura, K. Uota, and Y. Morimoto, Opt. Eng. 43, 2228 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

D. Weber and J. Trolinger, Opt. Eng. 38, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

Arcos, S.

Carnicer, A.

Castro, A.

Dubois, F.

Frauel, Y.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 2000).

Horner, J. L.

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ide, M.

Javidi, B.

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1128 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Frauel, A. Castro, T. J. Naughton, and B. Javidi, Opt. Express 15, 10253 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, Opt. Express 13, 9310 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Refregier and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 20, 767 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 28, 2358 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sadjadi and B. Javidi, Physics of Automatic Target Recognition (Springer, 2007).
[CrossRef]

Juvells, I.

Kuroda, K.

Mahalanobis, A.

A. Mahalanobis, IEEE Trans. AES 45, 1167 (2009).

Matoba, O.

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1128 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Tan, O. Matoba, Y. Okada-Shudo, M. Ide, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, Appl. Opt. 40, 2310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Millán, M. S.

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1128 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Montes-Usategui, M.

Morimoto, Y.

T. Nomura, K. Uota, and Y. Morimoto, Opt. Eng. 43, 2228 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

Naughton, T. J.

Nomura, T.

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1128 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Nomura, K. Uota, and Y. Morimoto, Opt. Eng. 43, 2228 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okada-Shudo, Y.

Pérez-Cabré, E.

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1128 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Refregier, P.

Sadjadi, F.

F. Sadjadi and B. Javidi, Physics of Automatic Target Recognition (Springer, 2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimura, T.

Tan, X.

Trolinger, J.

D. Weber and J. Trolinger, Opt. Eng. 38, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uota, K.

T. Nomura, K. Uota, and Y. Morimoto, Opt. Eng. 43, 2228 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watson, E.

Watson, E. A.

Weber, D.

D. Weber and J. Trolinger, Opt. Eng. 38, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, S.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. AES (1)

A. Mahalanobis, IEEE Trans. AES 45, 1167 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (3)

T. Nomura, K. Uota, and Y. Morimoto, Opt. Eng. 43, 2228 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Weber and J. Trolinger, Opt. Eng. 38, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1128 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Optical and Digital Techniques for Information Security, B.Javidi, ed. (Springer, 2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 2000).

F. Sadjadi and B. Javidi, Physics of Automatic Target Recognition (Springer, 2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Image f ( x ) ; (b) function | ψ ( x ) | ; (c) function | ψ ph ( x ) | with N p = 10 3 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image f ph ( x ) . (b) Correlation plane for k = 0.3 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PCE value versus number of photons ( N p ) for different nonlinearities (k).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Image g ( x ) ; (b) image g ph ( x ) for N p = 10 3 ; (c) correlation plane for k = 0.3 .

Equations (3)

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ψ ( x ) = { f ( x ) exp [ i 2 π n ( x ) ] } * h ( x ) ,
P d ( l j ; λ j ) = [ λ j ] l j e λ j l j ! , l j = 0 , 1 , 2 , ,
c ( x ) = IFT { | F ph ( μ ) F ( μ ) | k exp [ i ( ϕ F ph ( μ ) ϕ F ( μ ) ) ] } ,

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