Abstract

Owing to the low-loss and high refractive index variations derived from the basic building block of bone structure, we, for the first time to our knowledge, demonstrate coherent random lasing action originated from the bone structure infiltrated with laser dye, revealing that bone tissue is an ideal biological material for random lasing. Our numerical simulation shows that random lasers are extremely sensitive to subtle structural changes even at nanoscales and can potentially be an excellent tool for probing nanoscale structural alterations in real time as a novel spectroscopic modality.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].
  2. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, Phys. Rev. B 50, 9644 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. H. Wu and H. Cao, Opt. Lett. 32, 3089 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. L. van der Molen, P. Zijlstra, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Opt. Lett. 31, 1432 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

K. L. van der Molen, P. Zijlstra, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Opt. Lett. 31, 1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, Phys. Rev. B 50, 9644 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1967

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].

Alfano, A. A.

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R. H.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buehler, M. J.

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

X. H. Wu and H. Cao, Opt. Lett. 32, 3089 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, R. J. B.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fallert, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hansma, P.

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, N.

P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, Phys. Rev. B 50, 9644 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].

Li, Y.

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mosk, A. P.

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, P.

P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, Phys. Rev. B 50, 9644 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. O.

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siddique, M.

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Molen, K. L.

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. Z.

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. H.

Xiao, S.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zijlstra, P.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, Phys. Rev. B 50, 9644 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].

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