Abstract

We describe an architecture for spontaneous Raman scattering utilizing a frame-transfer CCD sensor operating in a subframe burst-gating mode to realize time-resolved combustion diagnostics. The technique permits all-electronic optical gating with microsecond shutter speeds (<5 μs) without compromising optical throughput or image fidelity. When used in conjunction with a pair of orthogonally polarized excitation lasers, the technique measures single-shot vibrational Raman scattering that is minimally contaminated by problematic optical background noise.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. S. Barlow, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 49 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. P. Hassel and S. Linow, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, R37 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Frank, S. A. Kaiser, and M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 143, 507 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, Combust. Flame 143, 524 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Wehr, W. Meier, P. Kutne, and C. Hassa, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3099 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Taschek, J. Egermann, S. Schwarz, and A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 44, 6606 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. N. Karpetis, T. B. Settersten, R. W. Schefer, and R. S. Barlow, Opt. Lett. 29, 355 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. S. Barlow, G.-H. Wang, P. Anselmo-Filho, M. S. Sweeney, and S. Hochgreb, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 945 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kojima and Q.-V. Nguyen, AIAA J. 46, 3116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q.-V. Nguyen, “High-speed electromechanical shutter for imaging spectrographs,” U.S. patent 6,937,331 (Aug. 30, 2005).
  11. W. Meier, and O. Keck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 741 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, and R. W. Bilger, Combust. Flame 67, 189 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, and P. Andresen, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 61, 473 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. B. Sinclair, D. M. Haaland, J. A. Timlin, and H. D. T. Jones, Appl. Opt. 45, 6283 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Kojima and Q.-V. Nguyen, Appl. Opt. 41, 6630 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon and Breach, 1996), pp. 209–273.

2009 (1)

R. S. Barlow, G.-H. Wang, P. Anselmo-Filho, M. S. Sweeney, and S. Hochgreb, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Kojima and Q.-V. Nguyen, AIAA J. 46, 3116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

R. S. Barlow, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Wehr, W. Meier, P. Kutne, and C. Hassa, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

M. Taschek, J. Egermann, S. Schwarz, and A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 44, 6606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, S. A. Kaiser, and M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 143, 507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, Combust. Flame 143, 524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

J. Kojima and Q.-V. Nguyen, Appl. Opt. 41, 6630 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Meier, and O. Keck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. P. Hassel and S. Linow, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, R37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, and P. Andresen, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 61, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, and R. W. Bilger, Combust. Flame 67, 189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Andresen, P.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, and P. Andresen, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 61, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Anselmo-Filho, P.

R. S. Barlow, G.-H. Wang, P. Anselmo-Filho, M. S. Sweeney, and S. Hochgreb, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R. S.

R. S. Barlow, G.-H. Wang, P. Anselmo-Filho, M. S. Sweeney, and S. Hochgreb, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Barlow, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Karpetis, T. B. Settersten, R. W. Schefer, and R. S. Barlow, Opt. Lett. 29, 355 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beushausen, V.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, and P. Andresen, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 61, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bilger, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, and R. W. Bilger, Combust. Flame 67, 189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dibble, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, and R. W. Bilger, Combust. Flame 67, 189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dreizler, A.

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, Combust. Flame 143, 524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, C.

C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon and Breach, 1996), pp. 209–273.

Egermann, J.

Frank, J. H.

J. H. Frank, S. A. Kaiser, and M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 143, 507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, D.

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, Combust. Flame 143, 524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grünefeld, G.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, and P. Andresen, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 61, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haaland, D. M.

Hassa, C.

L. Wehr, W. Meier, P. Kutne, and C. Hassa, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hassel, E. P.

E. P. Hassel and S. Linow, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, R37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hochgreb, S.

R. S. Barlow, G.-H. Wang, P. Anselmo-Filho, M. S. Sweeney, and S. Hochgreb, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Janicka, J.

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, Combust. Flame 143, 524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, H. D. T.

Kaiser, S. A.

J. H. Frank, S. A. Kaiser, and M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 143, 507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karpetis, A. N.

Keck, O.

W. Meier, and O. Keck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kempf, A.

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, Combust. Flame 143, 524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, J.

J. Kojima and Q.-V. Nguyen, AIAA J. 46, 3116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kojima and Q.-V. Nguyen, Appl. Opt. 41, 6630 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kutne, P.

L. Wehr, W. Meier, P. Kutne, and C. Hassa, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

Linow, S.

E. P. Hassel and S. Linow, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, R37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

J. H. Frank, S. A. Kaiser, and M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 143, 507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Masri, A. R.

R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, and R. W. Bilger, Combust. Flame 67, 189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Meier, W.

L. Wehr, W. Meier, P. Kutne, and C. Hassa, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Meier, and O. Keck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, Q.-V.

J. Kojima and Q.-V. Nguyen, AIAA J. 46, 3116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kojima and Q.-V. Nguyen, Appl. Opt. 41, 6630 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q.-V. Nguyen, “High-speed electromechanical shutter for imaging spectrographs,” U.S. patent 6,937,331 (Aug. 30, 2005).

Schefer, R. W.

Schwarz, S.

Settersten, T. B.

Sinclair, M. B.

Sweeney, M. S.

R. S. Barlow, G.-H. Wang, P. Anselmo-Filho, M. S. Sweeney, and S. Hochgreb, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taschek, M.

Timlin, J. A.

Wang, G.-H.

R. S. Barlow, G.-H. Wang, P. Anselmo-Filho, M. S. Sweeney, and S. Hochgreb, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wehr, L.

L. Wehr, W. Meier, P. Kutne, and C. Hassa, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

J. Kojima and Q.-V. Nguyen, AIAA J. 46, 3116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, and P. Andresen, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 61, 473 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (3)

R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, and R. W. Bilger, Combust. Flame 67, 189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, S. A. Kaiser, and M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 143, 507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, Combust. Flame 143, 524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

E. P. Hassel and S. Linow, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, R37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Meier, and O. Keck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Combust. Inst. (3)

R. S. Barlow, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Wehr, W. Meier, P. Kutne, and C. Hassa, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Barlow, G.-H. Wang, P. Anselmo-Filho, M. S. Sweeney, and S. Hochgreb, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Q.-V. Nguyen, “High-speed electromechanical shutter for imaging spectrographs,” U.S. patent 6,937,331 (Aug. 30, 2005).

C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon and Breach, 1996), pp. 209–273.

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