Abstract

We present design, fabrication, and characterization of a silicon-on-insulator grating coupler of high efficiency for coupling between a silicon nanophotonic waveguide and a single mode fiber. By utilizing the lag effect of the dry etching process, a grating coupler consisting of nonuniform grooves with different widths and depths is designed and fabricated to maximize the overlapping between the upward wave and the fiber mode. The measured waveguide-to-fiber coupling efficiency of 64% (−1.9 dB) for the transverse electric polarization is achieved by the present nonuniform grating coupler directly defined on a regular silicon-on-insulator wafer.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE LEOS Newsletter  22(6), 4 (December 2008).
  2. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express  15, 10091 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1249 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Tang, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 242 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Chen, C. Li, and H. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 268 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, and P. B. A. R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  45, 6071 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol.  25, 151 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett.  29, 2749 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, Appl. Phys. Lett.  92, 131101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D. Xu, I. Molina-Fernandez, and J. Wanguemert-Perez, Opt. Lett.  34, 1408 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Keil and E. Anderson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B  19, 2082 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Shi, S. He, and S. Anand, Opt. Lett.  33, 1927 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Y. Tang, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D. Xu, I. Molina-Fernandez, and J. Wanguemert-Perez, Opt. Lett.  34, 1408 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE LEOS Newsletter  22(6), 4 (December 2008).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, Appl. Phys. Lett.  92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, S. He, and S. Anand, Opt. Lett.  33, 1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, and P. B. A. R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Keil and E. Anderson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B  19, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

Anderson, E.

D. Keil and E. Anderson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B  19, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol.  25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, and P. B. A. R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, P. B. A. R.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, and P. B. A. R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, Appl. Phys. Lett.  92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol.  25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express  15, 10091 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett.  29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE LEOS Newsletter  22(6), 4 (December 2008).

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, and P. B. A. R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brision, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, Appl. Phys. Lett.  92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Y. Tang, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE LEOS Newsletter  22(6), 4 (December 2008).

Fedeli, J. -M.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, Appl. Phys. Lett.  92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, Appl. Phys. Lett.  92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halir, R.

He, S.

Y. Tang, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, S. He, and S. Anand, Opt. Lett.  33, 1927 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janz, S.

Keil, D.

D. Keil and E. Anderson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B  19, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Laere, F. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, and P. B. A. R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, Appl. Phys. Lett.  92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Molina-Fernandez, I.

Roelkens, G.

Schrauwen, J.

Schroeder, H.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE LEOS Newsletter  22(6), 4 (December 2008).

Shi, Y.

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol.  25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, and P. B. A. R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett.  29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tekin, T.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE LEOS Newsletter  22(6), 4 (December 2008).

Thourhout, D. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, and P. B. A. R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Laere, F.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, Appl. Phys. Lett.  92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wanguemert-Perez, J.

Xu, D.

Zimmermann, L.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE LEOS Newsletter  22(6), 4 (December 2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, Appl. Phys. Lett.  92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE LEOS Newsletter (1)

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE LEOS Newsletter  22(6), 4 (December 2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  21, 268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

D. Keil and E. Anderson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B  19, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, and P. B. A. R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relation between the etch width and etch depth (lag effect) obtained through SEM measurement. Inset: SEM micrograph of the cross section of a testing sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic structure of the present nonuniform SOI grating coupler. Blue curves (solid) represent the input and output power distributions when light is propagating upward from the waveguide to the fiber; green curve (dashed) represents the leakage factor distribution in the grating region in order to achieve a Gaussian profile output. The dashed box shows a grating cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Depiction of a grating cell for band analysis: PBC, periodic boundary condition; PEC, perfect electric conductor; PML, perfectly matched layer. (b) Band diagram of a grating cell ( w = 160   nm , d = 102   nm , a = 631   nm ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated mapping from the etch width to the cell width and the leakage factor to achieve 15° tilt of output beam at 1520 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical and experimental results of the waveguide-to-fiber coupling spectra for TE polarization, as well as the calculated power radiated upward and downward. Maximum coupling efficiency of 64% (−1.9 dB) and 1 dB bandwidth of 43 nm were obtained experimentally. Inset: SEM top view of a fabricated nonuniform grating coupler.

Equations (1)

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k = n gel   sin ( θ ) a / λ ,

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