Abstract

A photoacoustic correlation technique, inspired by its optical counterpart—the fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS)—was tested for the first time, to our knowledge, to demonstrate the feasibility of low-speed flow measurement based on photoacoustic signal detection. A pulsed laser was used to probe the flow of light-absorbing beads. A photoacoustic correlation system of 0.8 s temporal resolution was built and flow speeds ranging from 249 to 14.9μm/s with corresponding flow times from 4.42 to 74.1 s were measured. The experiment serves as a proof of concept for photoacoustic correlation spectroscopy, which may have many potential applications similar to the FCS.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

S.-L. Chen, S.-W. Huang, T. Ling, S. Ashkenazi, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 2482 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Pan, X. Shi, V. Korzh, H. Yu, and T. Wohland, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

D. Vobornik, D. S. Banks, Z. Lu, C. Fradin, R. Taylor, and L. J. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Huang, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, J. Y. Ye, T. Thomas, Y. Chen, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, Opt. Express 16, 12640 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Moger, S. J. Matcher, C. P. Winlove, and A. Shore, J. Phys. D 38, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

E. L. Elson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 857 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kim, K. G. Heinze, M. N. Waxham, and P. Schwille, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Haustein and P. Schwille, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 14, 531 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Irudayaraj and H. Yang, J. Food. Eng. 55, 25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Hess, A. A. Heikal, and W. W. Webb, Biochemistry 41, 697 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. E. Goertz, D. A. Christopher, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

B. Fagrell and M. Intaglietta, J. Intern Med. 241, 349 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

D. A. Christopher, P. N. Burns, J. Armstrong, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22, 1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1980 (1)

H. Asai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 2279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J.

D. A. Christopher, P. N. Burns, J. Armstrong, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22, 1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asai, H.

H. Asai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 2279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenazi, S.

S.-L. Chen, S.-W. Huang, T. Ling, S. Ashkenazi, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 2482 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Huang, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J. R.

Banks, D. S.

D. Vobornik, D. S. Banks, Z. Lu, C. Fradin, R. Taylor, and L. J. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. N.

D. E. Goertz, D. A. Christopher, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Christopher, P. N. Burns, J. Armstrong, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22, 1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. -C.

Chen, S. -L.

S.-L. Chen, S.-W. Huang, T. Ling, S. Ashkenazi, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 2482 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Huang, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Christopher, D. A.

D. E. Goertz, D. A. Christopher, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Christopher, P. N. Burns, J. Armstrong, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22, 1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Mul, F. F. M.

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elson, E. L.

E. L. Elson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 857 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fagrell, B.

B. Fagrell and M. Intaglietta, J. Intern Med. 241, 349 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, F. S.

D. E. Goertz, D. A. Christopher, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Christopher, P. N. Burns, J. Armstrong, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22, 1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fradin, C.

D. Vobornik, D. S. Banks, Z. Lu, C. Fradin, R. Taylor, and L. J. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goertz, D. E.

D. E. Goertz, D. A. Christopher, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L. J.

S.-L. Chen, S.-W. Huang, T. Ling, S. Ashkenazi, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 2482 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Huang, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haustein, E.

E. Haustein and P. Schwille, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 14, 531 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heikal, A. A.

S. T. Hess, A. A. Heikal, and W. W. Webb, Biochemistry 41, 697 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinze, K. G.

S. A. Kim, K. G. Heinze, M. N. Waxham, and P. Schwille, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hess, S. T.

S. T. Hess, A. A. Heikal, and W. W. Webb, Biochemistry 41, 697 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hondebrink, E.

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

Huang, S. -W.

S.-L. Chen, S.-W. Huang, T. Ling, S. Ashkenazi, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 2482 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Huang, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Intaglietta, M.

B. Fagrell and M. Intaglietta, J. Intern Med. 241, 349 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irudayaraj, J.

J. Irudayaraj and H. Yang, J. Food. Eng. 55, 25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, L. J.

D. Vobornik, D. S. Banks, Z. Lu, C. Fradin, R. Taylor, and L. J. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kerbel, R. S.

D. E. Goertz, D. A. Christopher, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. A.

S. A. Kim, K. G. Heinze, M. N. Waxham, and P. Schwille, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kolkman, R. G. M.

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Korzh, V.

X. Pan, X. Shi, V. Korzh, H. Yu, and T. Wohland, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ling, T.

S.-L. Chen, S.-W. Huang, T. Ling, S. Ashkenazi, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 2482 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Huang, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

D. Vobornik, D. S. Banks, Z. Lu, C. Fradin, R. Taylor, and L. J. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mandelis, A.

S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

Matcher, S. J.

J. Moger, S. J. Matcher, C. P. Winlove, and A. Shore, J. Phys. D 38, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, A.

S.-W. Huang, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, J.

Moger, J.

J. Moger, S. J. Matcher, C. P. Winlove, and A. Shore, J. Phys. D 38, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

O’Donnell, M.

S.-W. Huang, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X.

X. Pan, X. Shi, V. Korzh, H. Yu, and T. Wohland, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwille, P.

E. Haustein and P. Schwille, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 14, 531 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kim, K. G. Heinze, M. N. Waxham, and P. Schwille, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X.

X. Pan, X. Shi, V. Korzh, H. Yu, and T. Wohland, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shore, A.

J. Moger, S. J. Matcher, C. P. Winlove, and A. Shore, J. Phys. D 38, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steenbergen, W.

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R.

D. Vobornik, D. S. Banks, Z. Lu, C. Fradin, R. Taylor, and L. J. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Telenkov, S. A.

S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, T.

Vobornik, D.

D. Vobornik, D. S. Banks, Z. Lu, C. Fradin, R. Taylor, and L. J. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

Waxham, M. N.

S. A. Kim, K. G. Heinze, M. N. Waxham, and P. Schwille, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

S. T. Hess, A. A. Heikal, and W. W. Webb, Biochemistry 41, 697 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 20, 2532 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winlove, C. P.

J. Moger, S. J. Matcher, C. P. Winlove, and A. Shore, J. Phys. D 38, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wohland, T.

X. Pan, X. Shi, V. Korzh, H. Yu, and T. Wohland, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

Yang, H.

J. Irudayaraj and H. Yang, J. Food. Eng. 55, 25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. Y.

Yu, H.

X. Pan, X. Shi, V. Korzh, H. Yu, and T. Wohland, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J. L.

D. E. Goertz, D. A. Christopher, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Vobornik, D. S. Banks, Z. Lu, C. Fradin, R. Taylor, and L. J. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Huang, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, A. Maxwell, M. O’Donnell, L. J. Guo, and S. Ashkenazi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biochemistry (1)

S. T. Hess, A. A. Heikal, and W. W. Webb, Biochemistry 41, 697 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. (1)

E. Haustein and P. Schwille, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 14, 531 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. G. M. Kolkman, E. Hondebrink, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

S.-L. Chen, S.-W. Huang, T. Ling, S. Ashkenazi, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 2482 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

X. Pan, X. Shi, V. Korzh, H. Yu, and T. Wohland, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Elson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 857 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Food. Eng. (1)

J. Irudayaraj and H. Yang, J. Food. Eng. 55, 25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Intern Med. (1)

B. Fagrell and M. Intaglietta, J. Intern Med. 241, 349 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D (1)

J. Moger, S. J. Matcher, C. P. Winlove, and A. Shore, J. Phys. D 38, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Asai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 2279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

S. A. Kim, K. G. Heinze, M. N. Waxham, and P. Schwille, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (2)

D. E. Goertz, D. A. Christopher, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Christopher, P. N. Burns, J. Armstrong, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22, 1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for PACS flow measurement: SMF, MMF, and PS stand for single-mode fiber, multi-mode fiber, and polystyrene beads, respectively. Beads flow in the x-direction. The PA signals were detected by using a microring resonator positioned in the x - z plane. The shape of the pulsed laser before and after a slit is illustrated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Detected raw PA signals at a calibrated flow speed of 33 μ m / s and at elapsed time = 309.1   s . (b) Signals after filtering. (c) Detected PA signals as a function of elapsed time, measured at the calibrated speed of 33 μ m / s . The average distance from the beads to the detector was 8.5   mm . (d)–(g) PACS strength fluctuation as a function of elapsed time. PACS strengths in (d), (e), (f), and (g) correspond to calibrated speeds of 200, 90, 33, and 14 μ m / s , respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PACS curves of designed flow speeds of 200, 90, 33, and 14 μ m / s . The solid curves are the corresponding fits. (b) The measured flow speeds by the PACS technique, shown in stars, versus the calibrated flow speeds. The solid line represents the results from direct measurement.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( t ) I ( r ) n ( r , t ) d 3 r ,
G ( τ ) = δ P ( t ) δ P ( t + τ ) / P ( t ) 2 ,
G ( τ ) / G ( 0 ) = { 1 τ / τ 0 , for   τ τ 0 0 , for   τ > τ 0 } ,

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