Abstract

High-visibility Nth-order ghost imaging with thermal light has been realized by recording only the intensities in two optical paths in a lensless setup. It is shown that the visibility is dramatically enhanced as the order N increases, but longer integration times are required owing to the increased fluctuations of higher-order intensity correlation functions. It is also demonstrated that the required integration time for a good image depends on the partition ratio of the intensities on the two detectors and the complexity of the object.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Zhang, Y. H. Zhai, L. A. Wu, and X. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 2354 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. H. Zhai, X. H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. H. Chen, Q. Liu, K. H. Luo, and L. A. Wu, Opt. Lett. 34, 695 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Richter, Quant. Opt. 3, 115 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and KaigeWang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and Ling-AnWu, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, and A. N. Penin, quant-ph arXiv:0911.3718.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. B. Liu, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), Sec. 12.6.
  19. R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, 2nd ed., (1983), Sec. 3.10.
  20. X. H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K. H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Wu, quant-ph arXiv:0902.3713.

2009 (5)

X. H. Chen, Q. Liu, K. H. Luo, and L. A. Wu, Opt. Lett. 34, 695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and Ling-AnWu, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. O'Sullivan, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Lett. 34, 3343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Liu, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and KaigeWang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, Y. H. Zhai, L. A. Wu, and X. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 2354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zhai, X. H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), Sec. 12.6.

1991 (1)

T. Richter, Quant. Opt. 3, 115 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, 2nd ed., (1983), Sec. 3.10.

Agafonov, I. N.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and Ling-AnWu, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K. H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Wu, quant-ph arXiv:0902.3713.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, and A. N. Penin, quant-ph arXiv:0911.3718.

Bache, M.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, Y. F.

Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berardi, V.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Brambilla, E.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, D. Z.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and KaigeWang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. W. C.

Chekhova, M. V.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and Ling-AnWu, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K. H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Wu, quant-ph arXiv:0902.3713.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, and A. N. Penin, quant-ph arXiv:0911.3718.

Chen, X. H.

Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Chen, Q. Liu, K. H. Luo, and L. A. Wu, Opt. Lett. 34, 695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, Y. H. Zhai, L. A. Wu, and X. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 2354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zhai, X. H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K. H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Wu, quant-ph arXiv:0902.3713.

D'Angelo, M.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and KaigeWang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gatti, A.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S. S.

Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. F.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and KaigeWang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. B.

J. B. Liu, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

X. H. Chen, Q. Liu, K. H. Luo, and L. A. Wu, Opt. Lett. 34, 695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K. H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Wu, quant-ph arXiv:0902.3713.

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, 2nd ed., (1983), Sec. 3.10.

Lugiato, L. A.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, K. H.

Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Chen, Q. Liu, K. H. Luo, and L. A. Wu, Opt. Lett. 34, 695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K. H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Wu, quant-ph arXiv:0902.3713.

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), Sec. 12.6.

O'Sullivan, M. N.

Penin, A. N.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, and A. N. Penin, quant-ph arXiv:0911.3718.

Pittman, T. B.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, T.

T. Richter, Quant. Opt. 3, 115 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scarcelli, G.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergienko, A. V.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sh. Iskhakov, T.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and Ling-AnWu, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.

J. B. Liu, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D. V.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valencia, A.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K. G.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Kaige

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and KaigeWang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), Sec. 12.6.

Wu, L. A.

X. H. Chen, Q. Liu, K. H. Luo, and L. A. Wu, Opt. Lett. 34, 695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Zhai, X. H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y. H. Zhai, L. A. Wu, and X. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 2354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K. H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Wu, quant-ph arXiv:0902.3713.

Wu, Ling-An

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and Ling-AnWu, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xian, R.

X. H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K. H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Wu, quant-ph arXiv:0902.3713.

Xiong, J.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and KaigeWang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Y. H.

Y. H. Zhai, X. H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y. H. Zhai, L. A. Wu, and X. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 2354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, Y. H. Zhai, L. A. Wu, and X. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 2354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zhai, X. H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. H.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and KaigeWang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and KaigeWang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and Ling-AnWu, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (7)

Y. H. Zhai, X. H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Liu, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quant. Opt. (1)

T. Richter, Quant. Opt. 3, 115 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, and A. N. Penin, quant-ph arXiv:0911.3718.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), Sec. 12.6.

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, 2nd ed., (1983), Sec. 3.10.

X. H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K. H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Wu, quant-ph arXiv:0902.3713.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for arbitrary-order lensless GI with a pseudothermal light source. G, rotating ground-glass plate; BS, beam splitter; O, object.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

First row: (a) object mask; (b), (c) projection images obtained by CCD1 alone, averaged over 20,000 frames, for (b) z 3 = 20 mm and (c) z 3 = 70 mm . Second row: high-order ghost images obtained with thermal light in a lensless setup, averaged over 140,000 frames, corresponding to (d) 2nd-order ( N = 2 , n = 1 ) , (e) 10th-order ( N = 10 , n = 9 ) , (f) 20th-order ( N = 20 , n = 19 ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fourth-order lensless ghost images for n = 1 , 2 , and 3 (from left to right).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for arbitrary-order lensless GI with a pseudothermal light source. G, rotating ground-glass plate; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results of second-, fourth-, sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-order lensless GI along one cross section. Transverse coordinates are the number of pixels, and each point on the plot is an average of the raw data from five pixels. The solid curves are Gaussian fits.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g N ( x 1 , , x N ) = I 1 ( x 1 ) I N ( x N ) I 1 ( x 1 ) I N ( x N ) ,
g n ( N ) ( y 1 , y 2 ) = I n ( y 1 ) I N n ( y 2 ) I ( y 1 ) n I ( y 2 ) N n ,
γ n ( N ) ( y 2 ) = S n I N n ( y 2 ) S n I ( y 2 ) N n ,

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