Abstract

V2O5 films capped by a thin ZnO layer had been prepared by sputtering method at room temperature. The initial smooth films transferred to porous composite nanocrystals and nanorods after annealed at 500°C, and enhanced visible light emission was observed. This tremendous enhancement was attributed to the coupling between V2O5 nanorods and ZnO nanoparticles as well as the improved V2O5 crystallinity. Prominent vibrational fine structures of the photoluminescence spectra were also observed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Wang and G. Cao, Chem. Mater. 18, 2787 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. T. Kim, J. Muster, V. Kristic, J. G. Park, Y. W. Park, S. Roth, and M. Burghard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1875 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. K. Chan, H. Peng, R. D. Twesten, K. Jarausch, X. F. Zhang, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 7, 490 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, and W. Gao, J. Phys. D 42, 145402 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Wang, Z. Li, X. Sheng, and Z. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 164701 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Hu, Z. Li, Z. J. Zhang, and D. Meng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Minami, T. Utsubo, T. Miyata, and Y. Suzuki, Thin Solid Films 445, 377 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, Y. Park, S. Park, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, and Y. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203515 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Kurzawa, I. R. Himmel, M. Bosacka, and A. B. Tabero, J. Therm Anal. Calorim. 64, 1113 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, J. M. Bian, E. Haemmerle, and W. Gao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 84 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Patterson, J. Cheng, S. Despres, M. Sunamoto, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8813 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. G. Zhang, S. Higashimoto, H. Yamashita, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 5590 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Dzwigaj, M. Matsuoka, M. Anpo, and M. Che, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6012 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (5)

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, and W. Gao, J. Phys. D 42, 145402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, Z. Li, Z. J. Zhang, and D. Meng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, Y. Park, S. Park, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, J. M. Bian, E. Haemmerle, and W. Gao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, W. Li, M. Gao, Z. Niu, W. Zhou, and S. Xie, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. K. Chan, H. Peng, R. D. Twesten, K. Jarausch, X. F. Zhang, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 7, 490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, and Y. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. Li, X. Sheng, and Z. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 164701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Y. Wang and G. Cao, Chem. Mater. 18, 2787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, and X. W. Sun, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Minami, T. Utsubo, T. Miyata, and Y. Suzuki, Thin Solid Films 445, 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Kurzawa, I. R. Himmel, M. Bosacka, and A. B. Tabero, J. Therm Anal. Calorim. 64, 1113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

G. T. Kim, J. Muster, V. Kristic, J. G. Park, Y. W. Park, S. Roth, and M. Burghard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Dzwigaj, M. Matsuoka, M. Anpo, and M. Che, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6012 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. G. Zhang, S. Higashimoto, H. Yamashita, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 5590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Patterson, J. Cheng, S. Despres, M. Sunamoto, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8813 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Anpo, M.

S. Dzwigaj, M. Matsuoka, M. Anpo, and M. Che, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6012 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Zhang, S. Higashimoto, H. Yamashita, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 5590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Patterson, J. Cheng, S. Despres, M. Sunamoto, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8813 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bian, J. M.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, J. M. Bian, E. Haemmerle, and W. Gao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bosacka, M.

M. Kurzawa, I. R. Himmel, M. Bosacka, and A. B. Tabero, J. Therm Anal. Calorim. 64, 1113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burghard, M.

G. T. Kim, J. Muster, V. Kristic, J. G. Park, Y. W. Park, S. Roth, and M. Burghard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, G.

Y. Wang and G. Cao, Chem. Mater. 18, 2787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. K.

C. K. Chan, H. Peng, R. D. Twesten, K. Jarausch, X. F. Zhang, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 7, 490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Che, M.

S. Dzwigaj, M. Matsuoka, M. Anpo, and M. Che, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6012 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. J.

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, and X. W. Sun, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, and Y. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. Q.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, J. M. Bian, E. Haemmerle, and W. Gao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, and W. Gao, J. Phys. D 42, 145402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

H. Patterson, J. Cheng, S. Despres, M. Sunamoto, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8813 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

C. K. Chan, H. Peng, R. D. Twesten, K. Jarausch, X. F. Zhang, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 7, 490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Despres, S.

H. Patterson, J. Cheng, S. Despres, M. Sunamoto, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8813 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dzwigaj, S.

S. Dzwigaj, M. Matsuoka, M. Anpo, and M. Che, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6012 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gao, M.

X. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, W. Li, M. Gao, Z. Niu, W. Zhou, and S. Xie, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, J. M. Bian, E. Haemmerle, and W. Gao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, and W. Gao, J. Phys. D 42, 145402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haemmerle, E.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, J. M. Bian, E. Haemmerle, and W. Gao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, J. M. Bian, E. Haemmerle, and W. Gao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, and W. Gao, J. Phys. D 42, 145402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Higashimoto, S.

S. G. Zhang, S. Higashimoto, H. Yamashita, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 5590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Himmel, I. R.

M. Kurzawa, I. R. Himmel, M. Bosacka, and A. B. Tabero, J. Therm Anal. Calorim. 64, 1113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, Z. Li, Z. J. Zhang, and D. Meng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jarausch, K.

C. K. Chan, H. Peng, R. D. Twesten, K. Jarausch, X. F. Zhang, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 7, 490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, G. T.

G. T. Kim, J. Muster, V. Kristic, J. G. Park, Y. W. Park, S. Roth, and M. Burghard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

K. K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, Y. Park, S. Park, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. K.

K. K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, Y. Park, S. Park, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

K. K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, Y. Park, S. Park, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kristic, V.

G. T. Kim, J. Muster, V. Kristic, J. G. Park, Y. W. Park, S. Roth, and M. Burghard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kubokawa, Y.

M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kurzawa, M.

M. Kurzawa, I. R. Himmel, M. Bosacka, and A. B. Tabero, J. Therm Anal. Calorim. 64, 1113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

K. K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, Y. Park, S. Park, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, Y. Park, S. Park, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

X. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, W. Li, M. Gao, Z. Niu, W. Zhou, and S. Xie, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Y. Hu, Z. Li, Z. J. Zhang, and D. Meng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. Li, X. Sheng, and Z. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 164701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

X. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, W. Li, M. Gao, Z. Niu, W. Zhou, and S. Xie, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, and Y. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, M.

S. Dzwigaj, M. Matsuoka, M. Anpo, and M. Che, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6012 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meng, D.

Y. Hu, Z. Li, Z. J. Zhang, and D. Meng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minami, T.

T. Minami, T. Utsubo, T. Miyata, and Y. Suzuki, Thin Solid Films 445, 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, T.

T. Minami, T. Utsubo, T. Miyata, and Y. Suzuki, Thin Solid Films 445, 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muster, J.

G. T. Kim, J. Muster, V. Kristic, J. G. Park, Y. W. Park, S. Roth, and M. Burghard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Z.

X. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, W. Li, M. Gao, Z. Niu, W. Zhou, and S. Xie, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

K. K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, Y. Park, S. Park, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. G.

G. T. Kim, J. Muster, V. Kristic, J. G. Park, Y. W. Park, S. Roth, and M. Burghard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

K. K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, Y. Park, S. Park, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

K. K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, Y. Park, S. Park, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. W.

G. T. Kim, J. Muster, V. Kristic, J. G. Park, Y. W. Park, S. Roth, and M. Burghard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, H.

H. Patterson, J. Cheng, S. Despres, M. Sunamoto, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8813 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H.

C. K. Chan, H. Peng, R. D. Twesten, K. Jarausch, X. F. Zhang, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 7, 490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, S.

G. T. Kim, J. Muster, V. Kristic, J. G. Park, Y. W. Park, S. Roth, and M. Burghard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, G.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, and Y. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, X.

Y. Wang, Z. Li, X. Sheng, and Z. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 164701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. W.

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, and X. W. Sun, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sunamoto, M.

H. Patterson, J. Cheng, S. Despres, M. Sunamoto, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8813 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

T. Minami, T. Utsubo, T. Miyata, and Y. Suzuki, Thin Solid Films 445, 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tabero, A. B.

M. Kurzawa, I. R. Himmel, M. Bosacka, and A. B. Tabero, J. Therm Anal. Calorim. 64, 1113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. T.

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, and X. W. Sun, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanahashi, I.

M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Twesten, R. D.

C. K. Chan, H. Peng, R. D. Twesten, K. Jarausch, X. F. Zhang, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 7, 490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utsubo, T.

T. Minami, T. Utsubo, T. Miyata, and Y. Suzuki, Thin Solid Films 445, 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Z. Li, X. Sheng, and Z. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 164701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and G. Cao, Chem. Mater. 18, 2787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

X. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, W. Li, M. Gao, Z. Niu, W. Zhou, and S. Xie, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, H.

S. G. Zhang, S. Higashimoto, H. Yamashita, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 5590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X. D.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, J. M. Bian, E. Haemmerle, and W. Gao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, and W. Gao, J. Phys. D 42, 145402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, W. Li, M. Gao, Z. Niu, W. Zhou, and S. Xie, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. G.

S. G. Zhang, S. Higashimoto, H. Yamashita, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 5590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, W. Li, M. Gao, Z. Niu, W. Zhou, and S. Xie, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. F.

C. K. Chan, H. Peng, R. D. Twesten, K. Jarausch, X. F. Zhang, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 7, 490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Y. Wang, Z. Li, X. Sheng, and Z. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 164701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. J.

Y. Hu, Z. Li, Z. J. Zhang, and D. Meng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, J.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, and Y. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

X. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, W. Li, M. Gao, Z. Niu, W. Zhou, and S. Xie, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zou, C. W.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, J. M. Bian, E. Haemmerle, and W. Gao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, and W. Gao, J. Phys. D 42, 145402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

G. T. Kim, J. Muster, V. Kristic, J. G. Park, Y. W. Park, S. Roth, and M. Burghard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1875 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, Z. Li, Z. J. Zhang, and D. Meng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, Y. Park, S. Park, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, and Y. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

Y. Wang and G. Cao, Chem. Mater. 18, 2787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, J. M. Bian, E. Haemmerle, and W. Gao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, and X. W. Sun, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Wang, Z. Li, X. Sheng, and Z. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 164701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

X. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, W. Li, M. Gao, Z. Niu, W. Zhou, and S. Xie, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

H. Patterson, J. Cheng, S. Despres, M. Sunamoto, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8813 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

S. Dzwigaj, M. Matsuoka, M. Anpo, and M. Che, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6012 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Zhang, S. Higashimoto, H. Yamashita, and M. Anpo, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 5590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, and W. Gao, J. Phys. D 42, 145402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Therm Anal. Calorim. (1)

M. Kurzawa, I. R. Himmel, M. Bosacka, and A. B. Tabero, J. Therm Anal. Calorim. 64, 1113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. K. Chan, H. Peng, R. D. Twesten, K. Jarausch, X. F. Zhang, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 7, 490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Minami, T. Utsubo, T. Miyata, and Y. Suzuki, Thin Solid Films 445, 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD spectra for V 2 O 5 Zn O bi-layer composite samples before and after annealing with different temperatures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Surface morphologies of as-prepared V 2 O 5 Zn O samples (the inset shows the related cross-section image); (b) annealed sample at 450 ° C ; (c) annealed sample at 500 ° C (the inset shows the magnified image); (d) the microstructure variation scheme.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (c) PL spectra for V 2 O 5 Zn O samples, (b) the integrated intensities for different samples, and (d) PL spectrum and corresponding second-derivative spectrum for V 2 O 5 Zn O annealed at 500 ° C .

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