Abstract

We compare the two prevailing raised-microdisk whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) characterization techniques, one based on coupling emission to a tapered fiber and the other based on collecting emission in the far field. We applied both techniques to study WGMs in Si nanocrystal raised microdisks and observed dramatically different behavior. We explain this difference in terms of the radiative bending loss on which the far-field collection technique relies and discuss the regimes of operation in which each technique is appropriate.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, A. Lui, G. Pucke, and L. Pavesi, Opt. Express 16, 13218 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 31, 1896 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, A. Lui, G. Pucke, and L. Pavesi, Opt. Express 16, 13218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 31, 1896 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

Brongersma, M. L.

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Creazzo, T.

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghulinyan, M.

Gosele, U.

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kalkman, J.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kekatpure, R. D.

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lui, A.

Marchena, E.

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milenin, A. P.

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Min, B.

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

Ozdemir, S. K.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

Pitanti, A.

Polman, A.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pucke, G.

Redding, B.

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tchebotareva, A. L.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 31, 1896 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, M.

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photonics 4, 46 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM of a fabricated Si-nc microdisk. (b) Far-field collection technique uses lenses to focus microdisk emission to spectrometer. (c) Micrograph and (d) schematic of tapered fiber collection technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL spectra collected from an 8 μ m diameter Si-nc microdisk using a fiber aligned to the edge of the disk (a), a fiber positioned on top of the disk (b), and the far field technique (c). PL collected from a 20 μ m diameter disk using a fiber aligned to the edge of the disk (d) and the far-field technique (e).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fraction of energy in a WGM that is lost radiatively for a 200 - nm -thick Si-nc microdisk. When this fraction is large, the far-field collection may be used; as it approaches zero, the tapered fiber technique is preferable.

Equations (1)

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α rad = 2 exp ( 2 3 s m , 1 cos 3 θ c ) π D eff n eff ,

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