Abstract

A double-clad fiber coupler is developed to be used in two-photon-excited fluorescence endomicroscopy to replace a dichroic mirror and separate the fluorescence signal from the excitation laser beam. With the double-clad fiber coupler, the endomicroscope becomes more compact, easier to be aligned, and more stable in alignment. The double-clad fiber coupler can transmit 62% of the excitation laser beam through the core. The fluorescence collection efficiency of the double-clad fiber coupler is 34%, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest fluorescence collection efficiency achieved by couplers used in two-photon-excited fluorescence endomicroscopes. As a result, the contrast of endomicroscopy imaging is enhanced.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
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B. P. Pal, P. R. Chaudhuri, and M. R. Shenoy, Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 97 (2003).

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B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
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B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, P.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
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Delp, S. L.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nature 454, 784 (2008).
[PubMed]

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, Nat. Methods 2, 932 (2005).
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P. Theer, M. T. Hasan, and W. Denk, Opt. Lett. 28, 1022 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehlers, A.

K. Konig, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. B. Ckle, and M. Kaatz, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 398 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fee, M. S.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flusberg, B. A.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fottner, C.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Atlas of Endomicroscopy (Springer, 2008).

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

Goetz, M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregor, S.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Hasan, M. T.

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, Nat. Methods 2, 932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtmann, M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, M. J.

Jung, J. C.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W.

Jung, Y.

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K. Konig, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. B. Ckle, and M. Kaatz, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 398 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanzler, S.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Atlas of Endomicroscopy (Springer, 2008).

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

Klöppel, G.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konig, K.

K. Konig, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. B. Ckle, and M. Kaatz, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 398 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasieva, T. B.

Lee, B. H.

Llewellyn, M. E.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nature 454, 784 (2008).
[PubMed]

McCormic, D. T.

Memadathil, B.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, J.

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Atlas of Endomicroscopy (Springer, 2008).

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pal, B. P.

B. P. Pal, P. R. Chaudhuri, and M. R. Shenoy, Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 97 (2003).

Pattie, R.

Piyawattanametha, W.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riemann, I.

K. Konig, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. B. Ckle, and M. Kaatz, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 398 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. Y.

Schenkl, S.

K. Konig, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. B. Ckle, and M. Kaatz, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 398 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirrmacher, E.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirrmacher, R.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, C.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nature 454, 784 (2008).
[PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shenoy, M. R.

B. P. Pal, P. R. Chaudhuri, and M. R. Shenoy, Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 97 (2003).

Strand, D.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J.

Tang, S.

Tank, D. W.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theer, P.

Tomov, I. V.

Tromberg, B. J.

Vance, R.

Vieth, M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Weber, M. M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weyand, E.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W. M.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, T.

Yelin, D.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 39, 350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiber Integr. Opt.

B. P. Pal, P. R. Chaudhuri, and M. R. Shenoy, Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 97 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Korea

Microsc. Res. Tech.

K. Konig, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. B. Ckle, and M. Kaatz, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 398 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, Nat. Methods 2, 932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nature 454, 784 (2008).
[PubMed]

Neuron

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. Kiesslich, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Atlas of Endomicroscopy (Springer, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Schematic structure of a four-port DCF coupler and a DCF. (B), (C) Light output patterns at port 1 and port 4 for an 800 nm femtosecond laser beam coupled to port 3 of the DCF coupler. (D) Output power at port 1, in the core of port 1 and at port 4 versus the input power at port 3. (E), (F) Light output patterns at port 3 and port 2 for a 532 nm laser beam coupled to port 1 of the DCF coupler. (G) Output power at port 2 and port 3 versus the incident power of the DCF coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TPF endomicroscopy using the DCF coupler. FC, fiber connector; M, mirror; ND, neutral density.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Set of TPF images of 10 μ m diameter fluorescent microspheres with an axial step of 4 μ m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) TPF images of a mouse kidney. Size of the image: 150 μ m × 150 μ m . (B) Image of 1 μ m diameter fluorescent microspheres. Size of the image: 30 μ m × 30 μ m . (C) Average fluorescence intensity profile of the microspheres. (D) Axial response of the TPF signal from a thin layer of DABM dye.

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