Abstract

The discovery of extraordinary transmission through periodic aperture arrays has generated significant interest. Most studies have used circular apertures and attributed enhanced transmission to surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonances and/or Rayleigh–Wood anomalies (RWA). Bowtie apertures concentrate light and have much longer cutoff wavelengths than circular apertures and can be designed to be strongly resonant. We demonstrate here that the total transmission through a bowtie aperture array can exceed 85% (4× the open area). Furthermore, we show that the high transmission is due to waveguide modes as opposed to the commonly believed SPP/RW phenomena. This work is focused on IR wavelengths near 9μm; however, the results are broadly applicable and can be extended to optical frequencies.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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Y. H. Ye, Y. Cao, Z. B. Wang, D. Yan, and J. Y. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, J. M. McMahon, M. H. Lee, J. Henzie, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, Opt. Express 17, 2334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. Wu, Q. Wan, X. Yin, J. Li, D. Zhu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Poujet, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, Opt. Lett. 32, 2942 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ye, Z. Wang, D. Yan, and J. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 32, 3140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Mallor, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Catrysse, H. Shin, and S. Fan, Vac. Sci. Technol. 23, 2675 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Gordon and A. G. Brolo, Opt. Express 13, 1933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

H. Leznec and T. Thio, Opt. Express 12, 3629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Sagerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Şendur, W. Challener, and C. Peng, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2743 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. M. Pozer, Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2003).

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Helszajn, Ridge Waveguides and Passive Microwave Components (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkoph, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Baida, F. I.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, S. E.

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

R. Gordon and A. G. Brolo, Opt. Express 13, 1933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Mallor, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Y. H. Ye, Y. Cao, Z. B. Wang, D. Yan, and J. Y. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

P. B. Catrysse, H. Shin, and S. Fan, Vac. Sci. Technol. 23, 2675 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Challener, W.

K. Şendur, W. Challener, and C. Peng, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2743 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deguzman, P. C.

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Sagerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

P. B. Catrysse, H. Shin, and S. Fan, Vac. Sci. Technol. 23, 2675 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Mallor, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon and A. G. Brolo, Opt. Express 13, 1933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, S. K.

Grober, R. D.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkoph, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Helszajn, J.

J. Helszajn, Ridge Waveguides and Passive Microwave Components (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2000).
[CrossRef]

Henzie, J.

Jin, E. X.

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. W.

Kavanagh, K. L.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein Koerkamp, K. J.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Sagerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Sagerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leathem, B.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. H.

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leznec, H.

Li, J.

S. Wu, Q. Wan, X. Yin, J. Li, D. Zhu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Wu, Q. Wan, X. Yin, J. Li, D. Zhu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Mallor, K. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Mallor, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinnon, A.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMahon, J. M.

Meier, J. T.

Minhas, B.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Mallor, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordin, G. P.

Odom, T. W.

Ordal, M. A.

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, C.

K. Şendur, W. Challener, and C. Peng, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2743 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poujet, Y.

Pozer, D. M.

D. M. Pozer, Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2003).

Prober, D. E.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkoph, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rajora, A.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sagerink, F. B.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Sagerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salvi, J.

Schatz, G. C.

Schoelkoph, R. J.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkoph, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sendur, K.

K. Şendur, W. Challener, and C. Peng, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2743 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H.

P. B. Catrysse, H. Shin, and S. Fan, Vac. Sci. Technol. 23, 2675 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

H. Leznec and T. Thio, Opt. Express 12, 3629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uppuluri, S. M.

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Sagerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Q.

S. Wu, Q. Wan, X. Yin, J. Li, D. Zhu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Wang, Z. B.

Y. H. Ye, Y. Cao, Z. B. Wang, D. Yan, and J. Y. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

S. Wu, Q. Wan, X. Yin, J. Li, D. Zhu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

L. Wang and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, D.

Y. H. Ye, Y. Cao, Z. B. Wang, D. Yan, and J. Y. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ye, Z. Wang, D. Yan, and J. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 32, 3140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, Y.

Ye, Y. H.

Y. H. Ye, Y. Cao, Z. B. Wang, D. Yan, and J. Y. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

S. Wu, Q. Wan, X. Yin, J. Li, D. Zhu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, J. Y.

Y. H. Ye, Y. Cao, Z. B. Wang, D. Yan, and J. Y. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Mallor, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, D.

S. Wu, Q. Wan, X. Yin, J. Li, D. Zhu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

S. Wu, Q. Wan, X. Yin, J. Li, D. Zhu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Wu, Q. Wan, X. Yin, J. Li, D. Zhu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkoph, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Ye, Y. Cao, Z. B. Wang, D. Yan, and J. Y. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Şendur, W. Challener, and C. Peng, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2743 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Sagerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Mallor, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. B. Catrysse, H. Shin, and S. Fan, Vac. Sci. Technol. 23, 2675 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. M. Pozer, Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2003).

J. Helszajn, Ridge Waveguides and Passive Microwave Components (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2000).
[CrossRef]

HFSS 12.0, Ansoft LLC (2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated geometry of focused-ion-beam (FIB) milled bowtie aperture array (not drawn to scale). Insets, an SEM image taken at 52° and a cross-section on the y z plane through the gap of one of the apertures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results for the normally illuminated bowtie aperture array at 0° and 90° polarizations. The inset is an SEM image of the array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated response from an isolated aperture: (a) transmission spectra, field distributions from eigenmode simulation; (b) electric field in the y z plane and (c) magnetic field in the x z plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation results of an array of bowtie apertures: (a) transmission spectra with close-up of SPP/RWA in inset, (b) electric field in the y z plane (c) magnetic field in the x z plane, both for the TE10 mode, and (d) electric field on the y z plane for the SPP/RWA.

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