Abstract

We present what we believe to be the first experimental study of the optical response of collective plasmon resonances in regular arrays of nanoresonators to local environment. Recently observed collective plasmon modes arise due to diffractive coupling of localized plasmons and yield almost 1 order of magnitude improvement in resonance quality. We measure the response of these modes to tiny variations of the refractive index of both gaseous and liquid media. We show that the phase sensitivity of the collective resonances can be more than 2 orders of magnitude better than the best amplitude sensitivity of the same nanodot array as well as 1 order of magnitude better than the phase sensitivity in surface plasmon resonance sensors.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

2008 (5)

E. Popov, D. Maystre, R. C. McPhedran, M. Neviere, M. C. Hutley, and G. H. Derrick, Opt. Express 16, 6146 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nature Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, N. W. Roberts, A. R. Sidorov, and A. A. Panteleev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 124103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, Nature 438, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wabuyele and T. Vo-Dinh, Anal. Chem. 77, 7810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Markel, J. Phys. B 38, L115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Zou, N. Janel, and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

K. Su, Q. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Prasad, Introduction to Biophotonics (Wiley-Interscience, 2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

1999 (2)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Quantum Electron. 27, 653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, Science 270, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

H. Raether, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Vol. 111.

1976 (2)

F. Abeles, Surf. Sci. 56, 237 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, Opt. Commun. 19, 431 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

R. H. Ritchie, Phys. Rev. 106, 874 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, F.

F. Abeles, Surf. Sci. 56, 237 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nature Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Auguié, B.

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beloglazov, A. A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Brown, P. O.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, Science 270, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, R. W.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, Science 270, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derrick, G. H.

Dickinson, M. R.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Firsov, A. A.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, Nature 438, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, Nature 438, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleeson, H. F.

A. N. Grigorenko, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, N. W. Roberts, A. R. Sidorov, and A. A. Panteleev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 124103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, Nature 438, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. V. Kabashin, S. Patskovsky, and A. N. Grigorenko, Opt. Express 17, 21191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, N. W. Roberts, A. R. Sidorov, and A. A. Panteleev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 124103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, Nature 438, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nature Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huebner, A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Hutley, M. C.

Janel, N.

S. Zou, N. Janel, and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, S. Patskovsky, and A. N. Grigorenko, Opt. Express 17, 21191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Quantum Electron. 27, 653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I. Y.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, Nature 438, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kravets, V. G.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuhne, C.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Lamprecht, B.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nature Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malinsky, M. D.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Markel, V. A.

V. A. Markel, J. Phys. B 38, L115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

McPhedran, R. C.

Mock, J. J.

K. Su, Q. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neviere, M.

Nikitin, P. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, Quantum Electron. 27, 653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Panteleev, A. A.

A. N. Grigorenko, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, N. W. Roberts, A. R. Sidorov, and A. A. Panteleev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 124103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patskovsky, S.

Petrovic, J.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, Nature 438, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, E.

Prasad, P. N.

P. N. Prasad, Introduction to Biophotonics (Wiley-Interscience, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Vol. 111.

Rechberger, W.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, Phys. Rev. 106, 874 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, N. W.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, N. W. Roberts, A. R. Sidorov, and A. A. Panteleev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 124103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salzer, R.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Savchuk, A. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Savchuk, O. A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Schatz, G. C.

S. Zou, N. Janel, and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schedin, F.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schena, M.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, Science 270, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

K. Su, Q. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nature Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalon, D.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, Science 270, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sidorov, A. R.

A. N. Grigorenko, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, N. W. Roberts, A. R. Sidorov, and A. A. Panteleev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 124103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

K. Su, Q. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, G.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Su, K.

K. Su, Q. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Valeiko, M. V.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nature Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vo-Dinh, T.

M. B. Wabuyele and T. Vo-Dinh, Anal. Chem. 77, 7810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabuyele, M. B.

M. B. Wabuyele and T. Vo-Dinh, Anal. Chem. 77, 7810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.

K. Su, Q. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

K. Su, Q. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, N. W. Roberts, A. R. Sidorov, and A. A. Panteleev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 124103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, Nature 438, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nature Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zou, S.

S. Zou, N. Janel, and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

M. B. Wabuyele and T. Vo-Dinh, Anal. Chem. 77, 7810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, N. W. Roberts, A. R. Sidorov, and A. A. Panteleev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 124103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Zou, N. Janel, and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. B (1)

V. A. Markel, J. Phys. B 38, L115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

K. Su, Q. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, Nature 438, 335 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nature Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, Opt. Commun. 19, 431 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, Opt. Commun. 220, 137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. H. Ritchie, Phys. Rev. 106, 874 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top insets: Direct and ATR geometries of experiments and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph of a typical double-dot array. Bottom: Narrow resonances based on diffractive coupling of localized plasmons (CPR). Ellipsometric parameters Ψ and Δ for light reflection from a square array of (a) and (b) single Au dots, (c) and (d) double dots, (e) and (f) Ψ and Δ for a square array of Au double dots (dumbbells), ATR geometry. Insets on the right show SEM micrographs of an elementary cell of an array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A typical CPR response to a change in local index of refraction. (a) The difference amplitude signal δ Ψ and phase signal δ Δ for CPR of Figs. 1c, 1d registered for a change in gas RI Δ n = 4 × 10 5 . (b) δ Ψ and δ Δ for CPR of Figs. 1e, 1f registered for a change in liquid RI Δ n = 6 × 10 4 .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Amplitude and Phase Sensitivities of CPR and SPR

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