Abstract

A rapid and simple approach to fabricate a large area of nanostructured substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is reported. Gold nanoparticles ranging from 10to40nm in diameter uniformly distributed on a silicon substrate were obtained by annealing the gold film precoated on the silicon substrate with UV nanosenond (ns) laser pulses. The gold nanoparticles were formed by surface tension of the melted gold layer heated by ns laser pulses. The enhancement factor of the SERS substrate for Rhodamine 6G at 632.8nm excitation was measured to be higher than 105. The proposed technique provides the opportunity to equip a functional microchip with SERS capability of high sensitivity and chemical stability.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

L. Kondic and J. A. Diez, Phys. Rev. E 79, 026302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. J. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, and Y. P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, M. V. Garland, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. C. Brown and J. T. Milton, J. Raman Spectrosc. 39, 1313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Su, C. J. Rowlands, and S. R. Elliott, Opt. Lett. 34, 1645 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Meason, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. Favazza, J. Trice, H. Krishna, and R. Kalyanaraman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. J. Henley, J. D. Carey, and S. R. P. Silva, Phys. Rev. B 72, 195408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. P. Van Duyne, J. C. Hulteen, and D. A. Treichel, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985

1977

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

P. A. Temple and C. E. Hathaway, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, M. V. Garland, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balasubramanian, N.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, M. V. Garland, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, R. J. C.

R. J. C. Brown and J. T. Milton, J. Raman Spectrosc. 39, 1313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buddharaju, K. D.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, M. V. Garland, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carey, J. D.

S. J. Henley, J. D. Carey, and S. R. P. Silva, Phys. Rev. B 72, 195408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diez, J. A.

L. Kondic and J. A. Diez, Phys. Rev. E 79, 026302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. R.

Fang, C.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, M. V. Garland, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Favazza, C.

C. Favazza, J. Trice, H. Krishna, and R. Kalyanaraman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fleischmann, M.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Garland, M. V.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, M. V. Garland, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hathaway, C. E.

P. A. Temple and C. E. Hathaway, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, A. R.

D. Meason, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hendra, P. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Henley, S. J.

S. J. Henley, J. D. Carey, and S. R. P. Silva, Phys. Rev. B 72, 195408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hulteen, J. C.

R. P. Van Duyne, J. C. Hulteen, and D. A. Treichel, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jeanmaire, D. L.

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kalyanaraman, R.

C. Favazza, J. Trice, H. Krishna, and R. Kalyanaraman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

Khalid, N. M.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, M. V. Garland, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kondic, L.

L. Kondic and J. A. Diez, Phys. Rev. E 79, 026302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, H.

C. Favazza, J. Trice, H. Krishna, and R. Kalyanaraman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, M. V. Garland, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, and Y. P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lunt, E. J.

D. Meason, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McQuillan, A. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Meason, D.

D. Meason, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milton, J. T.

R. J. C. Brown and J. T. Milton, J. Raman Spectrosc. 39, 1313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rowlands, C. J.

Salim, S. M.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, M. V. Garland, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

D. Meason, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seballos, L.

D. Meason, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silva, S. R. P.

S. J. Henley, J. D. Carey, and S. R. P. Silva, Phys. Rev. B 72, 195408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

Temple, P. A.

P. A. Temple and C. E. Hathaway, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Treichel, D. A.

R. P. Van Duyne, J. C. Hulteen, and D. A. Treichel, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trice, J.

C. Favazza, J. Trice, H. Krishna, and R. Kalyanaraman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

R. P. Van Duyne, J. C. Hulteen, and D. A. Treichel, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Widjaja, E.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, M. V. Garland, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, D.

D. Meason, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Z.

D. Meason, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Y.

Y. J. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, and Y. P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

Y. J. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, and Y. P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. P.

Y. J. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, and Y. P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Meason, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Favazza, J. Trice, H. Krishna, and R. Kalyanaraman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, and Y. P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

C. Fang, A. Agarwal, K. D. Buddharaju, N. M. Khalid, S. M. Salim, E. Widjaja, M. V. Garland, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

R. P. Van Duyne, J. C. Hulteen, and D. A. Treichel, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electroanal. Chem.

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc.

R. J. C. Brown and J. T. Milton, J. Raman Spectrosc. 39, 1313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

P. A. Temple and C. E. Hathaway, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Henley, J. D. Carey, and S. R. P. Silva, Phys. Rev. B 72, 195408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

L. Kondic and J. A. Diez, Phys. Rev. E 79, 026302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of the gold nanoparticle arrays (a) fabricated by thermal annealing; (b) size distribution of (a); (c) fabricated by ns laser annealing at 150 mJ cm 2 ; (d) size distribution of (c); (e) fabricated by ns laser annealing at 265 mJ cm 2 ; (f) size distribution of (e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SERS spectra of the 10 6 M R6G measured on a 10 nm gold film (a) before thermal annealing, (b) after thermal annealing, (c) after laser annealing at 150 mJ cm 2 , and (d) after laser annealing at 265 mJ cm 2 . (e) Normal Raman spectra of 10 3 M R6G measured on the surface of the bare silicon substrate.

Equations (1)

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EF = I SERS N SERS I nR N nR ,

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