Abstract

We report on the fabrication of hollow microfluidic channels with a circular cross-sectional shape embedded in fused silica by spatiotemporally focusing the femtosecond laser beam. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the spatiotemporal focusing of femtosecond laser beam allows for the creation of a three-dimensionally symmetric spherical intensity distribution at the focal spot.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010

2009

R. Stoian, C. Mauclair, A. M. Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 4, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

2005

2004

2003

2001

1999

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Aoki, N.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 76, 857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

R. Stoian, C. Mauclair, A. M. Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 4, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Bellouard, Y.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

Blondin, A. M.

R. Stoian, C. Mauclair, A. M. Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 4, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

R. Stoian, C. Mauclair, A. M. Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 4, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chen, X.

Cheng, Y.

Corkum, P. B.

Dugan, M.

Durst, M. E.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, F.

Helvajian, H.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 76, 857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

R. Stoian, C. Mauclair, A. M. Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 4, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

Howe, J.

Huot, N.

R. Stoian, C. Mauclair, A. M. Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 4, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kapteyn, H.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, Opt. Lett. 28, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 76, 857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

Liao, Y.

Marangoni, M.

Marcinkevicius, A.

Marshall, G.

Masuda, M.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 76, 857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, Opt. Lett. 28, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

Mauclair, C.

R. Stoian, C. Mauclair, A. M. Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 4, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Misawa, H.

Miwa, M.

Mourou, G.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Osellame, R.

Polli, D.

Ramponi, R.

Rayner, D. M.

Rosenfeld, A.

R. Stoian, C. Mauclair, A. M. Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 4, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Said, A.

Shihoyama, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 76, 857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, Opt. Lett. 28, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silvestri, S. D.

Simova, E.

Song, J.

Spence, D.

Stoian, R.

R. Stoian, C. Mauclair, A. M. Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 4, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H.

Taccheo, S.

Takai, H.

Takase, F.

Taylor, R. S.

Tien, A.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, Opt. Lett. 28, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 76, 857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Wang, X.

Watanabe, M.

Withford, M.

Xu, C.

Xu, J.

Xu, Y.

Xu, Z.

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, G.

Zipfel, W.

Appl. Phys. A

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 76, 857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.

R. Stoian, C. Mauclair, A. M. Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 4, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photonics

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: i, γ, d are the incident angle, the first order diffractive angle, and the distance between the gratings, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerically calculated laser intensity distributions at the focus produced by an objective lens (a) without and (b), (c) with temporal focusing technique in X Z and Y Z planes, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the 3D microfluidic channels fabricated using the temporal focusing method. The red arrows denote the translation directions of the stage. (b)–(i) Optical micrographs of cross section of microfluidic channels. The beam sizes and laser powers are 2 mm and 4 mW in (b), (f); 3 mm and 3.5 mW in (c), (g); 4 mm and 2 mW in (d), (h); and 5 mm and 2 mW in (e), (i).

Equations (4)

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A 1 ( x , y , ω ) = A 0   exp [ ( ω ω 0 ) 2 Ω 2 ] exp { [ x Δ x ( ω ) ] 2 + y 2 2 W 0 2 } ,
A 2 ( x , y , ω ) = A 1 ( x , y , ω ) exp ( i k x 2 + y 2 2 f ) ,
A 3 ( x , y , z , ω ) = exp ( i k z ) i λ z A 2 ( ξ , η , ω ) exp [ i k ( x ξ ) 2 + ( y η ) 2 2 z ] d ξ d η .
I ( x , y , z , t ) = | A 3 ( x , y , z , t ) | 2 = | A 3 ( x , y , z , ω ) exp ( i ω t ) d ω | 2 .

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