Abstract

We directly investigate both experimentally and numerically the influence of optical nonlinear loss dynamics on a silicon waveguide based all-optical device. The dynamics of these nonlinear losses are explored through the analysis of optical limiting of an amplitude distorted 10 Gbit/s signal in a slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguide. As the frequency of the distortion approaches the free-carrier recombination rate, free-carrier absorption reaches a steady state, leaving two-photon absorption the dominant dynamic nonlinear loss. Our results highlight the importance of engineering the free-carrier lifetime in silicon waveguides for high speed all-optical processing applications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010 (1)

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

2009 (7)

2008 (1)

B. Jalali, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

2005 (2)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ndi, J. Toulouse, T. Hodson, and D. W. Prather, Opt. Lett. 30, 2254 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

F. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 873 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Asakawa, K.

Baba, T.

Baron, A.

Beggs, D.

T. Kampfrath, D. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burresi, M.

T. Kampfrath, D. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C. C.

F. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Combrie, S.

Corcoran, B.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. K. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. , doi:10.1016/j.photonics.2009.08.002.

de Rossi, A.

Delaye, P.

Doany, F.

F. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dubreuil, N.

Ebnaili-Heidari, M.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. K. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. , doi:10.1016/j.photonics.2009.08.002.

Engelen, R. J. P.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M.

Frey, R.

Gaeta, A.

Grillet, C.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. K. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

F. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamachi, H.

Hodson, T.

Ikeda, N.

Inoue, K.

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kampfrath, T.

T. Kampfrath, D. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kampfrath, D. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, J. Phys. D 40, 2666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Settle, R. J. P. Engelen, M. Salib, A. Michaeli, L. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 15, 219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. , doi:10.1016/j.photonics.2009.08.002.

Krauss, T. K.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. K. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, S.

Kuipers, L.

T. Kampfrath, D. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Settle, R. J. P. Engelen, M. Salib, A. Michaeli, L. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 15, 219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michaeli, A.

Monat, C.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. K. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. , doi:10.1016/j.photonics.2009.08.002.

Moss, D.

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. , doi:10.1016/j.photonics.2009.08.002.

Moss, D. J.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. K. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ndi, F.

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oda, H.

O'Faolain, L.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. K. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. , doi:10.1016/j.photonics.2009.08.002.

Painter, O.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelusi, M.

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. , doi:10.1016/j.photonics.2009.08.002.

Pelusi, M. D.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

Prather, D. W.

Pudo, D.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. , doi:10.1016/j.photonics.2009.08.002.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roosen, G.

Ryasnyanskiuy, A.

Salem, R.

Salib, M.

Settle, M. D.

Soljacic, M.

M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 873 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Toulouse, J.

Tran, Q. V.

Turner, A.

van Oosten, D.

T. Kampfrath, D. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 17, 2944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. K. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kampfrath, D. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. , doi:10.1016/j.photonics.2009.08.002.

Yin, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Kampfrath, D. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Lipson, Electron. Lett. 45, 576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 873 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnaili-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 334 (2010).

J. Phys. D (1)

T. F. Krauss, J. Phys. D 40, 2666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. K. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 3, 206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. (1)

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. , doi:10.1016/j.photonics.2009.08.002.

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

B. Jalali, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical limiting schematic. A nonlinear power transfer function with transmission decreasing for high input powers (in this case provided by nonlinear loss in the PhC waveguide) allows for the reduction in amplitude fluctuation. Pulses from a 10 GHz mode-locked fiber laser (MLFL) are imprinted with a 10 Gbit/s PRBS, amplitude distorted at a frequency f d by a local oscillator (LO), amplified (30 dBm maximum erbium-doped fiber amplifier), passed through a polarization controller (PC), variable optical attenuator (VOA), and a 5 nm bandpass filter (BPF), then butt-coupled to the PhC waveguide chip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sample eye diagram for high input power. Box indicates sampled “1” level, distortion measured from σ 1 and P . (b) Corresponding low input power eye diagram to (a). (c) Change in DR in the “1” level data when varying the frequency of the superimposed distortion; simulated values are from the SSFM model (with both TPA and FCA, τ c = 1   ns ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated DR using SSFM. For comparison: red square traces here are the same as the simulated trace in Fig. 2. (a) Different traces simulated by removing terms from Eq. (1), as indicated in the legend. (b) Different traces simulated with both TPA and FCA for different values of τ c between 0.2 and 1 ns.

Equations (1)

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A d z + i β 2 2 2 A d z 2 + S α 2 A = i S 2 γ ( | A 2 | A ) S 2 β TPA 2 A eff + S N C 2 π i k C λ 0 A S N C σ 2 A .

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