Abstract

Improved outcoupling of light into substrate modes of an organic LED (OLED) by an ultra-low index of refraction (n=1.15), porous SiO2 grid (UltraLIG) fabricated using glancing-angle deposition is demonstrated. Outcoupling into the substrate for electrophosphorescent tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium [Ir(ppy)3]-based OLEDs grown on substrates with the UltraLIG is increased by 48% over a conventional device at a luminance of 100  cd/m2. With efficient light outcoupling at the substrate–air interface, the UltraLIG devices attain ηEQE=22.5% and ηP=64  lm/W at their peak efficiencies, a nearly threefold increase over an analogous conventional OLED.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Nano Lett. 5, 1385 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. S. R. Forrest, D. D. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, Adv. Mater. 15, 1043 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Slootsky and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photonics 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

2005 (1)

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Nano Lett. 5, 1385 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. R. Forrest, D. D. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, Adv. Mater. 15, 1043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, Thin Solid Films 305, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. M. Roessler and D. R. Huffman, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 899-918.

Abelmann, L.

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, Thin Solid Films 305, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, Adv. Mater. 15, 1043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Forrest, S. R.

M. Slootsky and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photonics 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, D. D. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, Adv. Mater. 15, 1043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

D. M. Roessler and D. R. Huffman, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 899-918.

Ishikawa, K.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Nano Lett. 5, 1385 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Lodder, C.

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, Thin Solid Films 305, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Machida, Y.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robbie, K.

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roessler, D. M.

D. M. Roessler and D. R. Huffman, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 899-918.

Schubert, E. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Nano Lett. 5, 1385 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Slootsky, M.

M. Slootsky and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photonics 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, G.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, Adv. Mater. 15, 1043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. -Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Nano Lett. 5, 1385 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, D. D. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, Adv. Mater. 15, 1043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Slootsky and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Nano Lett. 5, 1385 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photonics 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, Thin Solid Films 305, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. M. Roessler and D. R. Huffman, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 899-918.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The surface (top) and cross-sectional (bottom) scanning electron microscope images of obliquely deposited porous SiO 2 used for the UltraLIG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical constants n (diamonds) and k (squares) measured by ellipsometry of a 110 nm obliquely deposited SiO 2 film. The corresponding density of this film is ( 23.9 ± 0.1 ) % that of conventional e-beam deposited SiO 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Luminous power (top) and external quantum (bottom) efficiencies as functions of total OLED luminance in the forward-viewing direction. Device 1 (triangles) is a conventional OLED structure, Device 2 (circles) is Device 1 measured using an index-matching liquid (IMF) between the glass substrate and the photodetector to outcouple all substrate modes, and Device 3 (squares) is for an UltraLIG using an IMF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Device efficiency enhancement ratios as functions of luminance. Squares are the ratio of outputs of Device 3 to Device 2 (see Fig. 3), triangles compare Device 2 to Device 1, and diamonds compare the UltraLIG device (3) to a conventional OLED (Device 1). Inset, data in the main panel over a greater range of luminance.

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