Abstract

We present an approach to the problem of the calculation of basic paraxial parameters and the third-order aberration coefficients of thin refractive tunable-focus lenses. It is shown that aberration coefficients of the third order of the thin refractive tunable-focus lens can be completely characterized by three functions that depend only on refractive indices of fluids forming the tunable-focus lens and do not depend on the position and size of the object and the position of the entrance pupil.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Opt. Rev. 12, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Mouroulis and J. Macdonald, Geometrical Optics and Optical Design (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

1970 (1)

M. Berek, Grundlagen der praktischen optik (Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1970).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Oxford U. Press, 1964).

Baer, E.

Beadie, G.

Berdichevsky, Y.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berek, M.

M. Berek, Grundlagen der praktischen optik (Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1970).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Oxford U. Press, 1964).

Bräuer, A.

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chau, F. S.

Chen, J.

Cho, S. H.

Choi, J.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Craen, P.

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dodge, M. R.

Fan, Y. H.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y. -Ch.

Gauza, S.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Opt. Rev. 12, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hiltner, A.

Hsueh, B. -R.

Hu, Ch. -Ch.

Kazmierczak, T.

Kuiper, S.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Opt. Rev. 12, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A. S.

Lepkowicz, R. S.

Leung, H. M.

Lien, V.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, Opt. Lett. 33, 291 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, J.

J.-H. Sun, B.-R. Hsueh, Y.-Ch. Fang, J. MacDonald, and Ch.-Ch. Hu, Appl. Opt. 48, 1741 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mouroulis and J. Macdonald, Geometrical Optics and Optical Design (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

Mathine, D. L.

Miks, A.

A. Miks, Applied Optics (Czech Technical U. Press, 2009).
[PubMed]

Mikš, A.

Mouroulis, P.

P. Mouroulis and J. Macdonald, Geometrical Optics and Optical Design (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

Novák, J.

Novák, P.

Peng, R.

Peyghambarian, N.

Peyman, G.

Ponting, M.

Reichelt, S.

Ren, H. W.

H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 15, 5931 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Renders, C. A.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Opt. Rev. 12, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sandrock, M. L.

Schreiber, P.

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J.

Shirk, J. S.

Sun, J. -H.

Tsai, F. S.

Tukker, T. W.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Opt. Rev. 12, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Valley, P.

van As, M. A. J.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Opt. Rev. 12, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vasko, B.

Vasko, J.

Wiggins, M. J.

Wippermann, F. C.

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Oxford U. Press, 1964).

Wu, S. T.

H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 15, 5931 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yu, H.

Zappe, H.

Zhang, D. Y.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

Zhu, Ch.

Zhuang, S.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Opt. Rev. 12, 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

http://www.varioptic.com/.

A. Miks, Applied Optics (Czech Technical U. Press, 2009).
[PubMed]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Oxford U. Press, 1964).

P. Mouroulis and J. Macdonald, Geometrical Optics and Optical Design (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

M. Berek, Grundlagen der praktischen optik (Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1970).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simple tunable-focus lens.

Equations (19)

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f = 1 φ = r 2 ( n 3 n 2 ) ,     s F = f d 2 n 3 ,     s F = f + d 1 n 2 ,
s f = 1 m 1 + d 1 n 2 f ,     s f = 1 m d 2 n 3 f ,
q q = f 2 ,     m = q / f = f / q ,
α δ x = x P ( y P 2 + x P 2 ) S I + 2 y 0 y P x P ( σ 1 σ ¯ 1 ) S I I y 0 2 y P ( σ 1 σ ¯ 1 ) 2 ( S I I I + H 2 S I V ) ,
α δ y = y P ( y P 2 + x P 2 ) S I + y 0 ( 3 y P 2 + x P 2 ) ( σ 1 σ ¯ 1 ) S I I y 0 2 y P ( σ 1 σ ¯ 1 ) 2 ( 3 S I I I + H 2 S I V ) + y 0 3 ( σ 1 σ ¯ 1 ) 3 S V ,
S I = i = 1 i = K h i U i ,     S I I = i = 1 i = K h i U i ( Δ σ ¯ i Δ σ i ) ,
S I I I = i = 1 i = K h i U i ( Δ σ ¯ i Δ σ i ) 2 ,
S I V = i = 1 i = K Δ ( n i σ i ) h i n i n i + 1 ,     S V = i = 1 i = K [ h i U i ( Δ σ ¯ i Δ σ i ) 2 + H 2 Δ ( n i σ i ) h i n i n i + 1 ] ( Δ σ ¯ i Δ σ i ) ,
U i = ( Δ σ i Δ ( 1 / n i ) ) 2 Δ ( σ i n i ) ,     H = n 1 σ 1 y 0 = n K σ K y 0 = n 1 ( h ¯ 1 σ 1 h 1 σ ¯ 1 ) = n K ( h ¯ K σ K h K σ ¯ K ) = const.
S I = h M ,     S I I = h ¯ M H N ,     S I I I = ( h ¯ 2 / h ) M 2 H ( h ¯ / h ) N + H 2 φ ,     S I V = φ C ,
S V = ( h ¯ 3 / h 2 ) M 3 H ( h ¯ 2 / h 2 ) N + H 2 ( h ¯ / h ) φ ( 3 + C ) ,
M = ( h φ ) 3 A + σ ( h φ ) 2 ( 4 B 1 ) + σ 2 ( h φ ) ( 3 + 2 C ) ,
N = ( h φ ) 2 B + σ ( h φ ) ( 2 + C ) .
A = 1 + 2 P Q Q ( P Q ) 2 ,     B = 1 + 1 Q ( P Q ) ,     C = 1 P Q ,
x = y 2 2 r 2 + ( 1 + b ) y 4 8 r 2 3 ,
M asf = M + b ( h r 2 ) 3 ( Q P ) .
S I = j = 1 K ( S I ) j ,     S I I = j = 1 K ( S I I ) j ,     S I I I = j = 1 K ( S I I I ) j ,
S I V = j = 1 K ( S I V ) j ,     S V = j = 1 K ( S V ) j ,
d s λ = ( s 2 r 2 ) ( n 2 1 ) / ν 2 ( n 3 1 ) / ν 3 [ 1 + s ( n 3 n 2 ) / r 2 ] 2 ,

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