Abstract

We report the performance of NiSi-based heaters integrated with submicrometer silicon waveguides. The heaters were fabricated using a standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicidation process on a thin silicon slab laterally connected with a silicon rib waveguide. The intrinsic properties of such NiSi waveguide heaters were characterized by using them as thermo-optic phase shifters in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The power consumption Pπ for obtaining a π phase shift was measured to be as low as 20 mW, using CMOS-compatible drive voltages. The time constant of the thermo-optic response was less than 2.8μs. Simulations suggest that a further reduction in the power consumption Pπ is feasible.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. W. M. Green, H. F. Hamann, and Y. Vlasov, “Silicide thermal heaters for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic devices,” U.S. patent application 11/849591 (April 9, 2007).
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  11. W. Liu and M. Asheghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3819 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Sultan, A. D. Avery, G. Stiehl, and B. L. Zink, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 043501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

R. Sultan, A. D. Avery, G. Stiehl, and B. L. Zink, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 043501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Assefa, C. Janes, and Y. Vlasov, “CMOS compatible integrated dielectric optical waveguide coupler and fabrication,” U.S. patent application 12/164580 (June 30, 2008).

2007 (3)

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holtzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Green, H. F. Hamann, and Y. Vlasov, “Silicide thermal heaters for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic devices,” U.S. patent application 11/849591 (April 9, 2007).

2006 (1)

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, Opt. Express 13, 10109 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and M. Asheghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Asheghi, M.

W. Liu and M. Asheghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, C. Janes, and Y. Vlasov, “CMOS compatible integrated dielectric optical waveguide coupler and fabrication,” U.S. patent application 12/164580 (June 30, 2008).

Avery, A. D.

R. Sultan, A. D. Avery, G. Stiehl, and B. L. Zink, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 043501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holtzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Cohen, E.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dahlem, M. S.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holtzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R. L.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gan, F.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holtzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M.

W. M. Green, H. F. Hamann, and Y. Vlasov, “Silicide thermal heaters for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic devices,” U.S. patent application 11/849591 (April 9, 2007).

Hamann, H. F.

W. M. Green, H. F. Hamann, and Y. Vlasov, “Silicide thermal heaters for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic devices,” U.S. patent application 11/849591 (April 9, 2007).

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtzwarth, C. W.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holtzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z. G.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holtzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

Jaenen, P.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Janes, C.

S. Assefa, C. Janes, and Y. Vlasov, “CMOS compatible integrated dielectric optical waveguide coupler and fabrication,” U.S. patent application 12/164580 (June 30, 2008).

Kärtner, F. X.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holtzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J. A.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T. K.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

W. Liu and M. Asheghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luck, D. L.

M. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Y. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielson, G. N.

M. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Nunes, L. R.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O'Boyle, M.

Y. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holtzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Priem, G.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holtzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holtzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stiehl, G.

R. Sultan, A. D. Avery, G. Stiehl, and B. L. Zink, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 043501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sultan, R.

R. Sultan, A. D. Avery, G. Stiehl, and B. L. Zink, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 043501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

M. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Tsai, M. -C.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, M.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

S. Assefa, C. Janes, and Y. Vlasov, “CMOS compatible integrated dielectric optical waveguide coupler and fabrication,” U.S. patent application 12/164580 (June 30, 2008).

W. M. Green, H. F. Hamann, and Y. Vlasov, “Silicide thermal heaters for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic devices,” U.S. patent application 11/849591 (April 9, 2007).

Y. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakil, J.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M.

M. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Weger, A.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

Yardley, J. T.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. W.

M. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Zink, B. L.

R. Sultan, A. D. Avery, G. Stiehl, and B. L. Zink, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 043501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zortman, W. A.

M. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Liu and M. Asheghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Sultan, A. D. Avery, G. Stiehl, and B. L. Zink, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 043501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (4)

M. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holtzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

W. M. Green, H. F. Hamann, and Y. Vlasov, “Silicide thermal heaters for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic devices,” U.S. patent application 11/849591 (April 9, 2007).

S. Assefa, C. Janes, and Y. Vlasov, “CMOS compatible integrated dielectric optical waveguide coupler and fabrication,” U.S. patent application 12/164580 (June 30, 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscope cross-sectional image of an SOI rib waveguide with 1 - μ m -wide NiSi heaters (500-nm-long scale bar). (b) NiSi heaters implemented into a thermo-optic MZ interferometer ( 40 - μ m -long scale bar). (c) Electrical configuration of the NiSi heaters in the upper arm of the MZ interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured T 12 transmittance versus applied power for a thermo-optic MZ interferometer with NiSi waveguide heaters with w = 1 μ m and s = 0.5 μ m . The markers represent the measured values, and the solid line is a fit to the measurement. The power consumption for obtaining a π phase shift is 20 mW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Series resistance R s and (b) power consumption P π versus NiSi-heater width w. The markers represent the values measured for two different samples. The solid (dashed) line in (b) represents the simulated P π values for s = 0.5 μ m ( s = 1 μ m ) , based on thermal simulations as illustrated in Fig. 4. The dotted line in (a) represents the expected series resistance R s assuming a NiSi sheet resistance of R sh = 12.8 Ω .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Simulated 2-D distribution of the expected temperature increase (in kelvin) for 0.1   mW / μ m power dissipation. The scale bar is 2 μ m long. (b) Magnification of (a), showing a temperature increase in the waveguide core of 23 K. The scale bar is 500 nm long.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(b) Measured T 11 and T 12 temporal transmittance waveforms, measured for a MZ interferometer with w = 1 μ m and s = 0.5 μ m . The applied power varied between 3 and 23 mW as shown in (a). The obtained time constants τ of the thermo-optic response are 2.8 and 2.2 μ s , for heating and cooling, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thermal Conductivities Used in Simulations

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