Abstract

A multilongitudinal mode fiber laser sensor formed by two fiber Bragg gratings and a piece of erbium-doped fiber is first proposed and validated experimentally. When the strain is applied on the sensor, the laser cavity is stretched, which leads to a change of round-trip frequency. Thus the strain can be obtained by measuring the beat frequency of the resonant cavity. The proposed sensor is found to be characterized with simplicity, easy setup, high resolution, low-cost demodulation, and good stability. Experimental results show that the sensor has a sensitivity of 1.1KHzμϵ and the root-mean-square deviation of 3.6μϵ.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennioon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 987 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

G. H. Ames and J. Maguire, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 557 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. F. Wooler, B. Hodder, and R. I. Crickmore, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 884 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, J. H. Ng, and C. Lu, Opt. Commun. 271, 203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hill, B. Hodder, J. D. Freitas, S. D. Thomas, and L. Hichkey, Proc. SPIE 5855, 904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brndle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1758 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, Electron. Lett. 31, 1180 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ames, G. H.

G. H. Ames and J. Maguire, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 557 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennioon, I.

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennioon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 987 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bohnert, K.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brndle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1758 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brndle, H.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brndle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1758 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. L. W.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, J. H. Ng, and C. Lu, Opt. Commun. 271, 203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crickmore, R. I.

J. P. F. Wooler, B. Hodder, and R. I. Crickmore, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 884 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frank, A.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brndle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1758 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freitas, J. D.

D. J. Hill, B. Hodder, J. D. Freitas, S. D. Thomas, and L. Hichkey, Proc. SPIE 5855, 904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H.

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennioon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 987 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B. O.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hadeler, O.

Haroud, K.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brndle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1758 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennioon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 987 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hichkey, L.

D. J. Hill, B. Hodder, J. D. Freitas, S. D. Thomas, and L. Hichkey, Proc. SPIE 5855, 904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hill, D. J.

D. J. Hill, B. Hodder, J. D. Freitas, S. D. Thomas, and L. Hichkey, Proc. SPIE 5855, 904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hodder, B.

J. P. F. Wooler, B. Hodder, and R. I. Crickmore, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 884 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hill, B. Hodder, J. D. Freitas, S. D. Thomas, and L. Hichkey, Proc. SPIE 5855, 904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

Kersey, A. D.

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, Electron. Lett. 31, 1180 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, Electron. Lett. 31, 1180 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kringlebotn, J. T.

Laming, R. I.

Lau, S. T.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Liu, Y.

Loh, W. H.

Lu, C.

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, J. H. Ng, and C. Lu, Opt. Commun. 271, 203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, S.

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, J. H. Ng, and C. Lu, Opt. Commun. 271, 203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maguire, J.

G. H. Ames and J. Maguire, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 557 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mou, C.

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennioon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 987 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J. H.

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, J. H. Ng, and C. Lu, Opt. Commun. 271, 203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patscheider, J.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brndle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1758 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J. E.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brndle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1758 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, C. V.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brndle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1758 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rønnekleiv, E.

Shu, X.

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennioon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 987 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S. D.

D. J. Hill, B. Hodder, J. D. Freitas, S. D. Thomas, and L. Hichkey, Proc. SPIE 5855, 904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wooler, J. P. F.

J. P. F. Wooler, B. Hodder, and R. I. Crickmore, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 884 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

Yang, X.

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, J. H. Ng, and C. Lu, Opt. Commun. 271, 203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennioon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 987 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, Electron. Lett. 31, 1180 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brndle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1758 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennioon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 987 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

G. H. Ames and J. Maguire, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 557 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. P. F. Wooler, B. Hodder, and R. I. Crickmore, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 884 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, J. H. Ng, and C. Lu, Opt. Commun. 271, 203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. J. Hill, B. Hodder, J. D. Freitas, S. D. Thomas, and L. Hichkey, Proc. SPIE 5855, 904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment setup of MLMFL sensor. WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; IMF, index-matching fluid; 3 dB , 3 dB fiber coupler; SM28, SM-28 fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resonance frequency of each mode and beat frequency between any two longitudinal modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Part of the beat frequency spectrum of the laser sensor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spectra of the beat frequency of 1413 MHz . Curves a, b, c, d, and e correspond to 0 μ ϵ , 51.2 μ ϵ , 102.4 μ ϵ , 153.6 μ ϵ , 204.8 μ ϵ , and 256 μ ϵ , respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relation between the beat frequencies and the strains of the sensor.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Stability of beat frequency of 1413.7 MHz .

Equations (2)

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ν N = N c 2 n L ,
δ ν N = N c 2 n L δ n n N c 2 n L δ L L = ν N ( δ n n + δ L L ) = ν N ( 1 P e ) ϵ ,

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