Abstract

This work presents a simple and effective method for a wide-angle light-emitting diode module by using a single lens corrugated with micropattern arrays. Impinged onto the micropattern arrays of a curved surface, light undergoes an enhancement of the illumination angle due to omnidirectional diffraction. A hemispherical dome lens with micropattern arrays is microfabricated by a reconfigurable microtemplating and a replica molding method. Depending on the micropattern size, the experimental and simulation results show the micropatterned single lens has the wide illumination angle as well as the high extraction efficiency of an incoming LED light source, compared with a conventional dome lens.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

2009 (2)

C. T. Pan, M. F. Chen, P. J. Cheng, Y. M. Hwang, S. D. Tseng, and J. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A 150, 156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chang, C. Ou, Y. Tsai, and F. Juang, Opt. Rev. 16, 323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

Y. Ye, D. Pu, Y. Zhou, and L. Chen, Appl. Opt. 46, 3396 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pan, C. Wang, H. Lan, W. Sun, and J. Chang, Opt. Express 15, 10483 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, J. Munoz, and R. Ivanov, Opt. Eng. 46, 033001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

P. C. Chao, L. Liao, and C. Chiu, Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960N (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, M. Avendaño-Alejo, and R. I. Tzonchev, Appl. Opt. 45, 2265 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chang, J. Yoon, H. Kim, J. Kim, B. Lee, and D. H. Shin, Opt. Lett. 31, 3016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J. Xi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X. M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Science 273, 347 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avendaño-Alejo, M.

Bermúdez, D.

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

Chang, S.

Chang, Y.

Y. Chang, C. Ou, Y. Tsai, and F. Juang, Opt. Rev. 16, 323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chao, P. C.

P. C. Chao, L. Liao, and C. Chiu, Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

T. Lin, C. Chen, J. Yang, and Y. Liao, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, M. F.

C. T. Pan, M. F. Chen, P. J. Cheng, Y. M. Hwang, S. D. Tseng, and J. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A 150, 156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, P. J.

C. T. Pan, M. F. Chen, P. J. Cheng, Y. M. Hwang, S. D. Tseng, and J. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A 150, 156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T. H.

Chien, W. T.

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.

P. C. Chao, L. Liao, and C. Chiu, Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. H.

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P.

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. T.

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. C.

Huang, J. C.

C. T. Pan, M. F. Chen, P. J. Cheng, Y. M. Hwang, S. D. Tseng, and J. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A 150, 156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, Y. M.

C. T. Pan, M. F. Chen, P. J. Cheng, Y. M. Hwang, S. D. Tseng, and J. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A 150, 156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, R.

I. Moreno, J. Munoz, and R. Ivanov, Opt. Eng. 46, 033001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K. H.

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juang, F.

Y. Chang, C. Ou, Y. Tsai, and F. Juang, Opt. Rev. 16, 323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X. M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Science 273, 347 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J. Xi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, H.

Lee, B.

Lee, L. P.

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, L.

P. C. Chao, L. Liao, and C. Chiu, Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

T. Lin, C. Chen, J. Yang, and Y. Liao, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.

T. Lin, C. Chen, J. Yang, and Y. Liao, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J. Xi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

I. Moreno, D. Bermúdez, and M. Avendaño-Alejo, Appl. Opt. 49, 12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, J. Munoz, and R. Ivanov, Opt. Eng. 46, 033001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, M. Avendaño-Alejo, and R. I. Tzonchev, Appl. Opt. 45, 2265 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munoz, J.

I. Moreno, J. Munoz, and R. Ivanov, Opt. Eng. 46, 033001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ou, C.

Y. Chang, C. Ou, Y. Tsai, and F. Juang, Opt. Rev. 16, 323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. T.

C. T. Pan, M. F. Chen, P. J. Cheng, Y. M. Hwang, S. D. Tseng, and J. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A 150, 156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.

Powell, K. D.

Prentiss, M.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X. M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Science 273, 347 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pu, D.

Rogers, J. A.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X. M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Science 273, 347 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J. Xi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D. H.

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

Tsai, Y.

Y. Chang, C. Ou, Y. Tsai, and F. Juang, Opt. Rev. 16, 323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, S. D.

C. T. Pan, M. F. Chen, P. J. Cheng, Y. M. Hwang, S. D. Tseng, and J. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A 150, 156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tzonchev, R. I.

Urey, H.

Wang, C.

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X. M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Science 273, 347 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C. Y.

Xi, J.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J. Xi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X. M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Science 273, 347 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

T. Lin, C. Chen, J. Yang, and Y. Liao, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T. H.

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Y.

Yoon, J.

Zhao, X. M.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X. M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Science 273, 347 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Z.

Zhou, Y.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

T. Lin, C. Chen, J. Yang, and Y. Liao, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

I. Moreno, J. Munoz, and R. Ivanov, Opt. Eng. 46, 033001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

Y. Chang, C. Ou, Y. Tsai, and F. Juang, Opt. Rev. 16, 323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. C. Chao, L. Liao, and C. Chiu, Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960N (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J. Xi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X. M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, Science 273, 347 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

C. T. Pan, M. F. Chen, P. J. Cheng, Y. M. Hwang, S. D. Tseng, and J. C. Huang, Sens. Actuators A 150, 156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of ray tracing on (a) planar micropattern arrays, (b) dome lens, and (c) micropatterned single lens (MSL). (d) Comparison of angular illuminations with a collimated light source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microfabrication procedures of a micropatterned single lens involving a reconfigurable microtemplating and a replica molding processes: (a) photoresist micropattern arrays, (b) PDMS coating, (c) PDMS elastomer bonding, (d) reconfigurable microtemplate, (e) membrane deformation, (f) recasting by UV light curing, (g) mold removal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of (a) the micropatterned single lens that has micropatterns on a single curvature and (b) an enlarged view of cylindrical micropattern arrays. (c) Perspective image of MSL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)–(d) Comparison between the numerical and experimental results of angular distributions for a dome lens and MSLs with micropatterns of different dimensions under an LED source: (a) dome lens, (b) micropattern width of 7.5 μ m , (c) 4.5 μ m , and (d) 3.0 μ m . (e) Numerical and experimental results of angle enhancement that is FWHM of MSLs with micropatterns of different dimensions divided by result of dome lens.

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