Abstract

An optical fiber acid-sensor based on protonation of a porphyrin solution within a single-hole structured optical fiber is proposed and demonstrated. The liquid-core fiber acts as a microcell reactor, and changes in the spectral signature with acidification are detected. Challenges and limitations in the practical deployment of such sensors are evaluated. An effective chemical sensor is demonstrated, but issues such as diffusion limit its full utilization. Some solutions are discussed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

J. Canning, J. Sensors 2009, Article ID 871580 (2009), doi:10.1155/2009/871580.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gulino, S. Bazzano, P. Mineo, E. Scamporrino, D. Vitalini, and I. Fragal, Chem. Mater. 17, 521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Ni, R. B. Tong, C. C. Guo, G. L. Shen, and R. Q. Yu, Talanta 63, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Supriyatno, M. Yamashita, K. Nakgawaw, and Y. Sadaoka, Sens. Actuators B 85, 197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. J. Hergenrother, K. M. Depew, and S. L. Schreiber, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 7849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. K. Dasgupta, Z. Genfa, S. K. Poruthoor, S. Caldwell, and S. Dong, Anal. Chem. 70, 4661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1985 (1)

K. Fujiwara and K. Fuwa, Anal. Chem. 57, 1012 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bazzano, S.

A. Gulino, S. Bazzano, P. Mineo, E. Scamporrino, D. Vitalini, and I. Fragal, Chem. Mater. 17, 521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A. S.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Brueckner, S.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, S.

P. K. Dasgupta, Z. Genfa, S. K. Poruthoor, S. Caldwell, and S. Dong, Anal. Chem. 70, 4661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

J. Canning, J. Sensors 2009, Article ID 871580 (2009), doi:10.1155/2009/871580.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, Opt. Lett. 32, 1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crossley, M. J.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasgupta, P. K.

P. K. Dasgupta, Z. Genfa, S. K. Poruthoor, S. Caldwell, and S. Dong, Anal. Chem. 70, 4661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Depew, K. M.

P. J. Hergenrother, K. M. Depew, and S. L. Schreiber, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 7849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dong, S.

P. K. Dasgupta, Z. Genfa, S. K. Poruthoor, S. Caldwell, and S. Dong, Anal. Chem. 70, 4661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fragal, I.

A. Gulino, S. Bazzano, P. Mineo, E. Scamporrino, D. Vitalini, and I. Fragal, Chem. Mater. 17, 521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, K.

K. Fujiwara and K. Fuwa, Anal. Chem. 57, 1012 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fuwa, K.

K. Fujiwara and K. Fuwa, Anal. Chem. 57, 1012 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Genfa, Z.

P. K. Dasgupta, Z. Genfa, S. K. Poruthoor, S. Caldwell, and S. Dong, Anal. Chem. 70, 4661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B.

Groothoff, N.

Gulino, A.

A. Gulino, S. Bazzano, P. Mineo, E. Scamporrino, D. Vitalini, and I. Fragal, Chem. Mater. 17, 521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C. C.

R. Ni, R. B. Tong, C. C. Guo, G. L. Shen, and R. Q. Yu, Talanta 63, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hansom, K.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hergenrother, P. J.

P. J. Hergenrother, K. M. Depew, and S. L. Schreiber, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 7849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S.

Jensen, M. A.

Khoury, T.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobelke, J.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laesggard, J.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, H.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, C.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, Opt. Lett. 32, 1575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mineo, P.

A. Gulino, S. Bazzano, P. Mineo, E. Scamporrino, D. Vitalini, and I. Fragal, Chem. Mater. 17, 521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakgawaw, K.

H. Supriyatno, M. Yamashita, K. Nakgawaw, and Y. Sadaoka, Sens. Actuators B 85, 197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ni, R.

R. Ni, R. B. Tong, C. C. Guo, G. L. Shen, and R. Q. Yu, Talanta 63, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, P.

Poruthoor, S. K.

P. K. Dasgupta, Z. Genfa, S. K. Poruthoor, S. Caldwell, and S. Dong, Anal. Chem. 70, 4661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reimers, J. R.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadaoka, Y.

H. Supriyatno, M. Yamashita, K. Nakgawaw, and Y. Sadaoka, Sens. Actuators B 85, 197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scamporrino, E.

A. Gulino, S. Bazzano, P. Mineo, E. Scamporrino, D. Vitalini, and I. Fragal, Chem. Mater. 17, 521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, S. L.

P. J. Hergenrother, K. M. Depew, and S. L. Schreiber, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 7849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwotzer, G.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Selfridge, R. H.

Shen, G. L.

R. Ni, R. B. Tong, C. C. Guo, G. L. Shen, and R. Q. Yu, Talanta 63, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sintic, M.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sørenson, H. R.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stocks, D.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supriyatno, H.

H. Supriyatno, M. Yamashita, K. Nakgawaw, and Y. Sadaoka, Sens. Actuators B 85, 197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tong, R. B.

R. Ni, R. B. Tong, C. C. Guo, G. L. Shen, and R. Q. Yu, Talanta 63, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vitalini, D.

A. Gulino, S. Bazzano, P. Mineo, E. Scamporrino, D. Vitalini, and I. Fragal, Chem. Mater. 17, 521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, M.

H. Supriyatno, M. Yamashita, K. Nakgawaw, and Y. Sadaoka, Sens. Actuators B 85, 197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R. Q.

R. Ni, R. B. Tong, C. C. Guo, G. L. Shen, and R. Q. Yu, Talanta 63, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

K. Fujiwara and K. Fuwa, Anal. Chem. 57, 1012 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Dasgupta, Z. Genfa, S. K. Poruthoor, S. Caldwell, and S. Dong, Anal. Chem. 70, 4661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

A. Gulino, S. Bazzano, P. Mineo, E. Scamporrino, D. Vitalini, and I. Fragal, Chem. Mater. 17, 521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

P. J. Hergenrother, K. M. Depew, and S. L. Schreiber, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 7849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Sensors (1)

J. Canning, J. Sensors 2009, Article ID 871580 (2009), doi:10.1155/2009/871580.

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

H. Supriyatno, M. Yamashita, K. Nakgawaw, and Y. Sadaoka, Sens. Actuators B 85, 197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Talanta (1)

R. Ni, R. B. Tong, C. C. Guo, G. L. Shen, and R. Q. Yu, Talanta 63, 251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the hollow core fiber with the fiber endface illumination of the core and cross-section dimensions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modeled representation of the acidification of 5,10,15-tris(di-tert-butylphenyl)-20 -(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (A) to the acidified porphyrin ( B 2 + ) within a liquid core fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption spectra of free-base porphyrin upon titration with TFA, with an observed decrease in absorbance of the free-base porphyrin and increase in absorbance of acidified porphyrin; (b) the calculated concentration (based on integrated area of absorbance of the Soret and Q bands) of all porphyrins present within the system at different points of titration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Absorption spectra of the porphyrin solution after acidification within the fiber; (b) the calculated concentration (based on integrated area of intensity of the Q bands) of porphyrins present within the system as a function of time.

Equations (2)

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0 < t < t threshold     d [ B 2 + ( t ) ] / d t = 0 ,
t > t threshold     d [ B 2 + ( t ) ] / d t = d [ A ( t ) ] / d t = 3.43 × 10 5   mM / h ,

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