Abstract

A Ce3+:YAG double-clad crystal fiber (DCF) visible emission was used as the light source for optical coherence tomography (OCT). The visible emission was produced from a 10μm core DCF pumped by a diode laser. The broadband emission and short central wavelength of this light source enabled the realization of 1.5μm axial resolution in air. The relatively clean spectrum reduced the side lobe of its point-spread function, and therefore facilitated the generation of a high-quality image with less crosstalk between adjacent image pixels. As a demonstration, an Aplocheilus lineatus goldfish was experimented on to map out the stroma of its cornea. This visible-light-based OCT can be utilized for industrial inspection as well as ocular applications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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X. C. Zhao, R. W. Yee, E. Norcom, H. Burgess, A. S. Avanesov, J. P. Barrish, and J. Malicki, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 4341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

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1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akcay, A. C.

Apolonski, A.

Avanesov, A. S.

X. C. Zhao, R. W. Yee, E. Norcom, H. Burgess, A. S. Avanesov, J. P. Barrish, and J. Malicki, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 4341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barrish, J. P.

X. C. Zhao, R. W. Yee, E. Norcom, H. Burgess, A. S. Avanesov, J. P. Barrish, and J. Malicki, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 4341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bashkansky, M.

Bizheva, K.

Boccara, A. C.

Boppart, S. A.

Burgess, H.

X. C. Zhao, R. W. Yee, E. Norcom, H. Burgess, A. S. Avanesov, J. P. Barrish, and J. Malicki, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 4341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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Chen, P. Y.

Chen, Y.

Drexler, W.

Dubots, A.

Duncan, M. D.

Eichenholz, J. M.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Goldberg, L.

Gorczynska, I.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hsu, K. Y.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, K. Y.

Huang, S. L.

Ippen, E. P.

Jheng, D. Y.

Jiang, J.

Kahn, M.

Kärtner, F. X.

Knight, J. C.

Ko, T.

Koplow, J. P.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Lewis, D.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malicki, J.

X. C. Zhao, R. W. Yee, E. Norcom, H. Burgess, A. S. Avanesov, J. P. Barrish, and J. Malicki, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 4341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moneron, G.

Morgner, U.

Norcom, E.

X. C. Zhao, R. W. Yee, E. Norcom, H. Burgess, A. S. Avanesov, J. P. Barrish, and J. Malicki, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 4341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

Pollnau, M.

Potsaid, B.

Povazay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reintjes, J.

Rolland, J. P.

Russell, P. St. J.

Salathé, R. P.

Sattmann, H.

Scherzer, E.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

Vetterlein, M.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Yee, R. W.

X. C. Zhao, R. W. Yee, E. Norcom, H. Burgess, A. S. Avanesov, J. P. Barrish, and J. Malicki, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 4341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P. S.

Zhao, X. C.

X. C. Zhao, R. W. Yee, E. Norcom, H. Burgess, A. S. Avanesov, J. P. Barrish, and J. Malicki, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 4341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhuo, W. J.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

X. C. Zhao, R. W. Yee, E. Norcom, H. Burgess, A. S. Avanesov, J. P. Barrish, and J. Malicki, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 4341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

End view of a 10 μ m core Ce 3 + : YAG DCF and its optical output power spectrum. In this figure, near-Gaussian profile and 98 nm FWHM are achieved. In the subsidiary figure, the length of the scale bar is 20 μ m ; meanwhile, only images of the core and inner clad of the DCF’s end view are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic optical setup of Ce 3 + : YAG DCF OCT. LD, laser diode; L 1 and L 2 , 40 × and 60 × aspheric lenses; DCF, double-clad crystal fiber; L 3 , 4 × color-corrected objective; L 4 and L 5 , 5 × long working distance color-corrected objectives; EF, edge filter; P, 100 μ m diameter pinhole; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; S, sample; LS, linear stage; PD, photodiode; BPF, bandpass filter; DAQ, digital acquisition card; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental interferometric signal and (b) its corresponding power envelope. The insets in (a) are an expansion of the main peak and the noise level far away from the main peak. From (b), low-pixel crosstalk with the 70 dB side lobe is observed where the asymmetric power envelope distribution of (b) resulted from nonlinear mirror movement and arm-imbalanced optical component dispersion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aplocheilus lineatus goldfish corneal image of (a) full range and (b) its partial magnification at t = 0.5 h . (b) is the magnified figure from the dot rectangular region of (a), where the length of scale bar in (a) is 100 μ m . The cross-sectional image at the same tomographic position of fish cornea at t = 0 , t = 0.5 h , t = 1 h , and t = 1.5 h is (c), (d), (e), and (f), respectively. (g) is the 3D image of oblique viewpoint at t = 0 . (i) is the en-face image inside layers (2) and (3) of (g), whereas (h) is the corneal surface imaged by traditional microscope (Nikon, #LV100). All the scale bars are 20 μ m except for (a). The scale bars are the same in both horizontal and vertical directions.

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